Radio Broadcasting On Environmental Sanitation Campaigns

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Radio Broadcasting On Environmental Sanitation Campaigns


Abstract


This study was carried out on radio broadcasting on environmental sanitation campaigns using Port Harcourt, Rivers state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain the extent of radio listenership in Port Harcourt, find out whether the Rivers State Sanitation Authority engages in sanitation campaigns on radio, and ascertain, whether enough air time is allotted to airing environmental campaign messages in Port Harcourt. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised residents in Port Harcourt, Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent do people listen to radio programmes in Port Harcourt is high. The study also revealed that the extent the Rivers State Sanitation Authority engages in sanitation campaigns on radio is high. Therefore, it is recommended that Radio and other media should have a special desk to be called environmental and climate desk to effectively and efficient disseminate information on weather, climate and other environment matters. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Throughout the world, the problem of polluted environment has become a very disturbing phenomenon. Environmental problems plaguing the world are enormous. But perhaps the most serious and worrisome in Nigeria is the physical environment in terms of the low level of sanitation and gross environmental indiscipline in our cities and communities. Anijah (2013) adds that, apart from the health significance of heaps of refuse as health hazard, they also make our environment ugly. The problem of solid waste disposal in Nigeria has become a national malaise. Filth is an eyesore and a nuisance. It signifies decadence and backwardness. A look at the many Port Harcourt homes, toilets, streets, kitchens, corridors, gutters, staircases, markets, abattoirs, would reveal the very low levels of sanitation. Poor environmental sanitation such as indiscriminate waste disposal is evidence of the crucial role environment occupies in deciding the health of a man.

In fact, never in the history of Nigeria has the need become more imperative and urgent to sharpen our consciousness concerning our surroundings. For in such consciousness lies our dignity and salvation as a people and as a nation. This is because some Nigerians still go about with the dangerous impression that (Filth does not kill black man). However, over the years, specific measures undertaken by the Nigerian government both in the past and present have not yielded significant success. Despite the fact that the objectives of environmental sanitation are to create and maintain conditions in the environment that will promote health and prevent diseases (Okon, 2007) cited in (Lucas and Gilles,1973).

More and more, efforts focus on prevention of disease to save healthcare care costs. This is particularly important in low and middle income countries like Nigeria where health interventions have come under increased scrutiny because of the cost (Ryan, 2009). To this end, the research sets to assess the role of radio broadcasting in behavioural change of the Port Harcourt residents in relation to the environmental sanitation and other cleanliness and neatness.

Radio is an electronic device that uses electromagnetic wave for the transmission of messages, information, communication and it possesses some attributes which place it upon the television broadcasting (Oyekanmi, 2006). Radio gives people voice and offer a forum for discussion on matters such as environmental sanitation and other developmental issues. Radio takes up this responsibility and ensures vulnerable groups in society are included and represented in their programming.

Radio stations educate, sensitize and inform local audiences about issues that affect their lives: health, education, water, human rights, etc. This way, radio is a genuine tool for community development (Abiola, 2010).

Anijah-Obi Franca, Eneji, Ubom, Dunnamah and William (2013) write that poor environmental sanitation is a term means low level of sanitation and gross environmental indiscipline in our cities and communities. Apart from the health implication of heaps of refuse as a health hazard, they also make our environment ugly. Meanwhile, environmental sanitation is the general cleaning of the surrounding to make it clean and tidy which capable of improving living. The problem of solid waste disposal in Nigeria has become a national malaise. Most of the poor sanitation takes place in Nigerian homes, toilets, streets, kitchens, corridors, gutters, staircases, markets, abattoirs. The woe of poor environmental sanitation such as indiscriminate waste disposal is evidence of the crucial role environment occupies in deciding the health of a man.

However, over the years, specific measures undertaken by the Nigerian Government both in the past and present have not yielded significant success. The promulgation of environmental decrees and legislations have also proved ineffective. During the colonial era, sanitation bye-laws were strictly enforced and sanitary inspectors carried out regular and surprise inspection of households, buildings and premises to ensure compliance.

Another initiative was in 1985 when the government declared the “War Against Indiscipline” (WAI) and launched the fifth phase of WAI, called the “War Against Filth,” which emphasized environmental Sanitation. Environmental Task Forces and Sanitation Courts were established in all the states of the federation and the last Saturday of every month was set aside as National Environmental Sanitation Day.

Unfortunately the sanitation courts and other Agencies charged with the responsibility of implementing/enforcing “Environmental Sanitation”, were more interested in revenue generation for the government (or for their personal pockets), than actually using the exercise as a corrective measure, by persuading defaulters to change their habits and attitudes and show more commitment to keeping their environment clean.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of environmental sanitation cannot be overemphasized especially in this era of packaged and disposable goods – sachet water, plastic water, plastic drinks and more that if not well disposed could dirty our environment and host of other problems. Thus, man’s activities on the environment has tended to degrade and make the environment untidy and unfit for human habitation because of its poor sanitation nature.

From the foregoing, it is evident that provision of adequate environmental sanitation facilities and services could at best be referred to as means to an end. The attitude and behavioural practices of the stakeholders determine the end (Bello, 2007).

Also, issues related to environmental sanitation practices have been explored by many researchers. For instance, there are studies on environmental sanitation as an exercise (Adejumo, 2013; Afon and Faniran 2013; Aluko and Agbola 2007; Nwachukwu 2008), health effects of environmental sanitation (Mmon and Mmon, 2011; Harvey, 2008), community participation in environmental sanitation (Ekong, 2013; Daramola, 2012; Luithi 2012; UNEP, 2005), environmental sanitation management (Acheampong, 2010) and environmental sanitation education (Anijah et al, 2013; Aremu, 2012). These studies have focused on issues pertaining to provision and deficiencies of facilities and services as well as legislation. Studies on environmental sanitation habits are quantitatively unimpressive, especially in Africa. With little empirical studies on the role of mass media especially broadcast media in promoting and creating behavioural change needed in achieving environmental sanitation. It is against this background that the study is examining the influence of radio broadcasting on behavioural chance of people on environmental sanitation campaigns in Port harcourt.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine Radio Broadcasting and Behavioural change: A study of Environmental Sanitation Campaigns in Port Harcourt.

The specific objectives will be to:

  1. Ascertain the extent of radio listenership in Port Harcourt.
  2. Find out whether the Rivers State Sanitation Authority engages in sanitation campaigns on radio.
  3. Ascertain whether enough air time is allotted to airing environmental campaign messages in Port Harcourt.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent do people listen to radio programmes in Port Harcourt?
  2. To what extent does the Rivers State Sanitation Authority engages in sanitation campaigns on radio?
  3. To what extent do enough air time is allotted to airing environmental campaign messages in Port Harcourt?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The Rivers State Sanitation Authority do not engage in sanitation campaigns on radio.
  • Ha: The Rivers State Sanitation Authority engages in sanitation campaigns on radio.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significant of the study is to reveal to the entire world; the role expected of mass media especially radio concerning environmental sanitation and sustainability of the environment. Policy makers may find the study useful as it may suggest new ways to address the problem of environmental sanitation.

Although, media role on environmental degradation and sanitations in Niger Delta often reported and researched into by the scholars, despite that, many of the study did not focus on the behavioral change of the respondents as a result of their expose to radio campaigns on environmental sanitation.

Researchers will also find this work very interesting as it can be used as reference materials that will guide them while writing on a similar topic or the same topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study which examines radio broadcasting and behaviour change has been narrowed in scope to Environmental Sanitation Campaigns by radio stations in Port Harcourt. Port Harcourt was selected because it is the state capital of Rivers which plays host to lots of people and industries.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of the Terms

Radio:

This is one of the electronic media of communication transmitting to a wider audience residing in different geographical locations simultaneously and instantaneously.

Clean Environmental:

This means radio enlightenment programmes in enlightening the people towards environmental sanitation. This is a general cleaning of the surroundings to make it tidy so as to avoid any form of disease.

Public Enlightenment:

It refers to various radio programmes aiming at creating awareness on environmental sanitation.

Radio Broadcasting:

This is one of the means of reaching out to the people in the form of programmes on environmental sanitation.

Environmental Sanitation:

This is a general cleaning of the surroundings to make it clean and tidy in order to prevent diseases and other forms of illness in the society.

Campaigns:

These are various radio programmes in Port Harcourt design to create awareness, knowledge and educate people on the negative effect of dirtiness, pollution and poor sanitation and how to change for better hygienic living.

Behaviour Change:

In this context refers to efforts to change people’s personal habits to prevent disease such habit include environmental sanitation.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on radio broadcasting on environmental sanitation campaigns using Port Harcourt, Rivers state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on radio broadcasting on environmental sanitation campaigns using Port Harcourt, Rivers state as a case study. The study is was specifically set to ascertain the extent of radio listenership in Port Harcourt, find out whether the Rivers State Sanitation Authority engages in sanitation campaigns on radio, and ascertain, whether enough air time is allotted to airing environmental campaign messages in Port Harcourt.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent areresidents in Port Harcourt, Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent do people listen to radio programmes in Port Harcourt is high.
  2. The extent the Rivers State Sanitation Authority engages in sanitation campaigns on radio is high.
  3. The extent enough airtime is allotted to airing environmental campaign messages in Port Harcourt is low.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Radio and other media should have a special desk to be called environmental and climate desk to effectively and efficient disseminate information on weather, climate and other environment matters.
  2. Broadcast media outfits should organize special seminars and workshops for their reporters on how best to cover scientific and environmental news to better display professionalism so that people can be better informed.
  3. Special desk suggested to be called environmental and climate desk should be created and equipped with scientific and investigative journalists to maintain the desk for effective and efficient dissemination of information on sanitation, weather, climate and other environmental matters.
  4. Media houses should design programmes for people to be more educated and alerted on environmental hazards , challenges and sanitation.
  5. Other radio stations should be encouraged to pay utmost focus in reporting environmental sanitation programmes and campaigns by allocating more air time for environmental sanitation reporting. This will improve the level of environmental sanity.

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