Phytochemical Screening Of Citrus Peel

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Phytochemical Screening Of Citrus Peel


Citrus generally is one of the most important commercial fruit crops grown in all continents of the world. Citrus importance is attributed to it’s diversified use and growing world demand. There is always an increased attention in bringing useful products from waste materials and citrus wastes are no exception suitable methods have been adopted to utilize them for the conversion into value-added produces the citrus peel are rich in nutrients and contains many phytochemical that can be efficiently used as drugs or as food supplements. The peel of citrus (shaddock) is a rich source of flavonoids and many polymethoxylated flavones which are very rare in other plants. total antioxidant capacity was 26.4 and 3.85µM/gm for orange peel extracted by MeOH and Hex, respectively. It seems that extraction ability could affects physicochemical characteristics, since % yield and specific gravity of MeOH extracts, either from lemon or orange, were significantly higher than Hex extracts. pH was <2.85 and >4 for Hex and MeOH extracts, respectively. Toxicity of citrus peel crude extracts against S. littoralis larvae showed that treatment by contact method was more efficient than ingestion, and Hex extracts were more toxic than MeOH extracts in both treatments. Citrus peel extracts showed relatively strong contact action, moderate repellency, weak ingestion and antifeedant activity against the 4th instar larvae. It is suggested that Hex could extracts toxic substances more than MeOH, out of the studied phytochemicals. Citrus peel waste is promising as a natural biopesticide, and its activity is determined by the solvent used for extraction.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Citrus generally is one of the most important commercial fruits crops grown in all continents of the world. Citrus importance is attributed to its diversified use and growing world demand with about 102.04 million tone total world production and probably stands first largest among the produced fruit (Ahmad, 2006). Citrus fruits are mainly used by juice processing industries while the peels are generally wasted. Since the juice yield of citrus is less half of the fruit weigh, very large amount of by products wastes, such as peels are formed every year (Dupont, 2002). Peel waste are highly perishable and seasonal, is a problem to the pollution monitoring agencies and processing industries. There is always an increased attention in bringing useful products from waste materials and citrus wastes are no exceptions. Suitable methods have to adopted to utilize them for the conversion into value-added products, for by-product recovered from fruit wastes such citrus peel (Shaddock) can improve the overall economics of processing units. Besides this, the problem of environmental pollution also can be reduced considerably. The citrus peels are rich in nutrients and contain any phytochemicals, that can be efficiently used as drugs or as food supplements too (Akinmoladum, 2007). The peel of citrus fruit is a rich source of flavonoid and many polymethoxylated flavones, which are very rare in other plants.The antimicrobial abilities of essential oil,among which citrus oil are also shown to be a particularly interesting field for applications within the food and cosmetic industries (Ahmed, 2006).It has been used as anti-diabetic antimicrobial, anti-fungi and anti-hypotensive agent (Jagger, 2006).

Citrus are known as one of the major fruit crops in the world, and the genus Citrus of family Rutaceae includes different species such as Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus limon (lemon), Citrus paradise (grapefruit), Citrusaurantium (sour orange) and Citrus aurantifolia (lime). Citrus peel waste though is seasonal, yet, is a big problem to the processing industries and pollution monitoring agencies (Kumar et al., 2012). However, citrus peels are a potential source of valuable essential oils and plant secondary metabolites. So there is an increased attention in extracting valuable products from citrus waste materials. Essential oils of citrus peel were used as food preservatives, phytomedicine and antioxidant agents (Javed et al., 2014).

The sweet orange does not occur in the wild. It is believed to have been first cultivated in southeastern Asia (formerly Indochina) (Miami, 1987). Sweet orange oil is a byproduct of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used as a flavoring of food and drink and for its fragrance in perfume and aromatherapy (Wilson, 2008).
The properties of the extract (either crude or oil) determine its bioactivity. Barkatullah et al. (2012) emphasized that study of various physicochemical characteristics explores the practical importance of herbal oils in daily life. Lario et al. (2004) determined some physicochemical properties of the raw residues from lemon juice, all of which depend on the chemical composition of the residue. However research has been limited mainly to oils characteristics (Javed et al., 2014), effect of physical or physicochemical conditions during processing on peel properties (Pandharipande and Makade, 2012) or physicochemical characterization of the orange juice waste water of a citrus by-product (Viuda-Martos, 2011).

The adverse effects of chemical control have been motivating the demand for alternatives in pest control, such as the use of natural products (Dutra et al., 2016). Crude extracts or, in most cases, essential oils of citrus fruit peels were tested against different species of insect pests such as mosquitoes (Escartin and Mariani, 2014), Lepidoptera such as spodoptera litura (Loh et al.,2011), hymenoptera (Vogt et al.,2002), Coleoptera (Dutra et al.,2016).

Shaddock (Citrus maxima) is a large tree that has a round top with fuzzy twigs when young. Its huge leaves are ovate. The white flowers are borne singly or in bunches. The fruit is the largest of all citrus. It is globose, oblate or moderately pear-shaped with 11 – 14 section. The pulp is light coloured or pink and coarse with large, spindle-shaped juice sacks that separate easily from one another (Wi;lson, 2006). This tree is a native of southeastern china, where it’s groom for its fruit. In the citrus districts of U.S, it is cultivated as an ornamental tree and is interesting because of its large fruits. It is closely related to the grapefruit, but much less cold resistant. Shaddock was brought to the Barbados by captain Haddock of an East Indian ship. It bears his name in English speaking countries. Pummelo is another name for it (Kokafe, 2001).

Particularly, Citrus maxima, among other citrus, is crisp citrus fruit native to south and south asia. It is usually pale green to yellow when ripe, with sweet white (at time pink or red) fleshy and very thick albedo (rind pith). It is the largest citrus fruit, 15 – 25 centimetres (5.9 – 9.8) in diameter. And usually weighing 1 – 2 kilograms.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

There is a doubt that the citrus peel (shaddock) has almost the same content as the juice, here leads to the study phytochemical analysis of shaddock (Citrus peel) to stop the doubt. But the fact remains that the peel content is the same as the juice.

1.3 Objective of the Study

Objectives of this study are:

To analyse citrus peel (shaddock) phytochemically. So as to know the content of the shaddock peel or what it is made up of phytochemically.

In the current study peel of fesh navel orange (C. sinensis) and lemon (C. limon) fruits were extracted using hexane and methanol as solvents differing in their polarity to address three objectives:

  1. Measurements of some physicochemical properties such as % yield, pH and specific gravity. proteins, phenols, carbohydrates, antioxidant capacity, alkaloids and flavonoids contents were measured as phytochemicals characteristics of the extracts.
  2. Detecting the most efficient solvent in extracting the active biochemical components.
  3. Toxicity of lemon and orange crude peel extracts against the cotton leafworm S. littoralis larvae.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study will help the populace to know the distraction between citrus peel (shaddock) and the juice base on their phytochemical content. Also to know it’s medicinal value.

1.5 Delimitation of the Study

This study limits on the phytochemical analysis of citrus peel (Shaddock).

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

It could be concluded that the extraction solvent type is a principal factor in determining chemical composition and physicochemical properties of citrus extracts. Citrus peel waste is promising as a natural biopesticide, and its activity is determined by the solvent used for extraction, citrus species and method of treatment. Lemon extracted by Hex, used for repellency or contact action is the most efficient against the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis larvae.
Finally, the evaluation of the proximate composition of Citrus showed that this peel is high in valuable nutrients. The elemental analysis shows that it contains some micro nutrients required for normal functioning of the body system. Previous work revealed that this extract has activity against Gram positive, Gram negative micro-organism and fungi in a dose dependent manner. However, further studies on the identification, isolation, characterization and elucidation of the structure of the bioactive compounds are in progress.

5.2 Recommendations

Citrus peel is now recommended to be taken because of the numerous nutritional and medicinal attributes ascribed to it and it should be taken especially by those that are suffering from anemia, diabetes, cancer and gastrointestinal disorder.

Phytochemical Screening Of Citrus Peel

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