Phytochemical Screening Of Eremomastax Speciosa (HOCHST)

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Chemistry

Phytochemical Screening Of Eremomastax Speciosa (HOCHST)


Abstract


In this study, the phytochemical constitutes of Ereromastax speciosa leaves was investigated. These leaved as commonly used amongst traditional birth attendants in the rural regions of calabar cross river state and Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. In this study, experienced Traditional birth attendants from the local regions in cross river and Akwa Ibom were orally interviewed about theuse of these herbs in enhancing fertility. Claims have been made by these traditional birth attendants on the efficacy of these plants for the treatment of internal heat, arresting of post-partum bleeding. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of these leaves were determined.


Chapter One


Background Information

1.0 Introduction

The level of Agriculture in the society today has proved that the creatures that live on earth, It is man that has reached the topmost in the continuum of agricultural development.

Crops has within the space of decades completely revolutionized individuals, organizations, and the society at large.
Today, agriculture produce has gone a long way to assist in the eradication of poverty, in the society and some of these agriculture produce serve as medicine in the human body.

Eremomastaxspeciosa (Hochst) Acanthaceae is a tropical stout erect multi-branched herb, which grows as a weed in the forest (Heine, 1966). Due to its numerous medicinal values, the plants is cultivated by many Nigerian and Cameroonians. The plant is used to treat dysentery diarrhea, anemia (obeneta’l, 2006) as well as irregular menstruation and spurious labour pains. The leaves are reported to be use in the treatment of fracture, hemorrhoids and urinary tract infection (Adjanohoun eta’ l, 1996).

Herbalist in Southern Nigeria make use of the leaves of the leaves in the treatment of internal heat, infertility, burns, hemorrhage in women after child birth and skin escoriation due to fungal infection in babies (obeneta’l, 2006) reported that the leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and Tannins.

Studies have also reports on the antidiarrhoae (obeneta’l, 2006) and antiulcer (Tan eta’l, 1996, 1999) activities of the plant. There is no previous in vitro antimicrobial and antianaemic activity of Eremomastaxspeciosa in literature to the best our knowledge. Therefore, report on antianaemic and antimicrobial activities of this plants on few clinical isolates.

The medicinal plants Eremomastaxspeciosa locally known as edemiduduot respectively amongst the Efiks and Ibibios in Akwa Ibom State and Cross river State belong to the Acanthaceae family. They are tropical stout erect multi-branched herbs, there herbs are mostly found in the tropical regions of Nigeria and Cameroon. They are grown in the farmyards of most rural dwellers for medicinal and ornamental purposes. (Olanipekun, T.O 2011)
Eremomastaxspeciosa in combination with other herbs have been in used by traditionalist in the local regions of Calabar and Akwa Ibom State to treat women with fertility problems.

Traditionalist by nature do not have a documented record of their herbal remedies, rather the knowledge on the use of these herbs are passed orally from previous generations.

Reports have shown that the extract from the herbs of Erememostaxspeciosa has been employed in the treatment of dysentery, anaema, diarrhea, irregular and urinary tract infect. (Heine eta’l, 1966).

The medical plant Eremomastexspeciousa locally known as edemidudotrespectivelamapngst the fefiks and ibibios in Akwa Ibom and cross river state belong to the Acanthaceac family. They are grown in the farmyards and rural dweller for medicinal purpose. Although, there can in sector parasite that may affect the plant, but it can be control by selecting a plant for your garden that will help control insect test. The research is to let public known the usefulness of the plant and it is limited to identification of medicinal value (This can be found in chapter one)
Eremomastexspeciousaare very useful in the the Cross River and Akwa Ibom metropolis because of the efficient cure of various diseases it was reported by world health organization (WHO) that in Nigeria, the ratio of Traditional Health practitioner to the population was 1:110. Different phytochemical constituent were identify to know their roles which there play in both plants and animals. (This can be found in chapter two).

The dried grinded was macerated with 90% ethanol in a large container with cover and allowed to stand for 48 hours at room temperature. It was then decanted, filtered and concentrate in water bath between 40% and 500c till the solvent in completely evaporated. Different materials and chemical reagent was used for the analysis of phytochemical constituent.

(This can be found in chapter three )

Different chemical component was screen using appropriate materials and chemical reagent. The phytochemical screening of the leave Eremomastexspeciosa revealed the presence of tannins, Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, terpence and others in varying quantities. This therefore suggest that the plant extracts investigated in this study can seen as a potential drug source for the management of female fertility issue (this can be found in chapter four)
Eremomastexspeciosahas its highest phytochemical constituent in the flavonoids, which are the secondary metabolites that are widespread throughput the plant kingdom. It can be said that Eremomastexspeciosa contain some bioactive principles and are therefore therapeutically active, and it is recommended that those that can’t afford money of going to hospital should visit Traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) for their health needs
(This can be found in chapter five).


1.1 Statement of a Research

Although, there is a high degree of quality control in the application of chemical in plant, leaves normally release small quantities of volatile chemical, but when a plant is damage by herbivorous insect, it should be considered as the main problem arising during plant processing. The chemical identity of the volatile compounds varies with the plant species and with the herbivorous insect species. These volatiles attract both parasitic and predatory insect that are natural enemies of the herbivorous. (Law and Regnier1971) one of the possible solution to control parasite and insect in the plant is to select plants for your garden that will help control insect pests, (P. Allen Smith 1998).


1.2 Purpose of Study

The purpose of these research work is to let the public know the usefulness of Eremomastaxspeciosa (African blood tonic plant), locally known as EdemIduduot as it has so many medicinal purpose. The leaves are used in the treatment of fracture and so on, in which ordinary, will have demanded a lot of money in the treatment of such disease and infection in the hospital.

The purpose of these research is also to study the phytochemical composition of Eremmostaxspeciosa as the leave is used to cured so many infections. (Adjanohouneta’l, 1996).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objective among other things includes creating awareness for everyone that did not know the true usefulness of Eremomastaxspeciosa (African blood tonic plant) to know. It will address the problems discovered and the way out.

The objectives will include

  1. To investigate other alternative way of presenting African blood tonic plant to the public.
  2. It will enable the people that disserted the plant to know the medicinal value of it.
  3. Many people in our society today are suffering from this infection called urinary tract infection, because most of them do not know what to use in which much money will not be spent. African blood tonic plant has been shown for the treatment of urinary tract infection.
  4. To let people know that the cooling properties of the leaves of African blood tonic plant were used in Southern Nigeria by herbalist to treat internal heat.
  5. It is hoped that an avenue to attract people that are suffering from this infection will see the usefulness of the plant through this research work, (Obeneta’l, 2006).

1.4 Significance of the Study

Although, there may be a high level of doubt about the medicinal value of Erememostaxspeciosa African blood tonic plant, studies and research have been done on the benefits and importance of African blood tonic plant locally known as edemIduduot as it help to reduce the level of spending financial resources in the hospital which by virtue of these research are some of the importance;

  1. The plant is used to cure dysentery, anaemia as well as irregular menstruation.
  2. The leaves are used in the treatment of urinary tract infection.
  3. In the Southern Nigeria, the leaves are used in the treatment of internal heat, infertility for women, (Tan eta’l, 1996, 1999).

1.5 Scope of the Study

Due to time frame and financial involvement, the research work limited only to the Eremomastaxspeciosa (Hochst also known as African blood tonic plant.

All other species of Acanthaceae family could not be research on at this tonic.

The research is also limited to the identification of medicinal value and all other kinds of uses, (Obeneta’l, 2006).


1.6 Limitation of the Study

Though the research was worth wide there existed some constraints in the wheels of its progress.
Below are the most prominent.

  1. TIME FRAME: The time allocated for this project research work was a constraining factor
  2. Tools and Materials: Tools and materials needed were equally constraining factors to this research work. Cost of carrying out the phyto chemical analyses of this plant was also a limitation to this research works.
  3. Power supply: General power outage of power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) also slowed down the speed of the project, (Burns LH eta’l, 1999).

1.7 Definition of Terms

Phytochemical:

Phytochemical are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants. (Phyto means “Plant” in Greek) Some are responsible for color and other organoleptic properties, such as the deep purple of blue berries and the smell of garlic. The term in generally used to refer to those chemicals that may have biological significance, for example antioxidants, but are not established as essential nutrients.

EremomastaxSpeciosa:

Eremomastaxspeciosa is a stout erect much – branch herb, of the forest zone, weed on cocoa farms, dispersed from Guinea to Cameroons, and widespread in tropical Africa. The leaves are eaten in Zaire, but alkaloid is reported in Nigerian material. The plant also contains saponin, and leaves are used in Ghana for washing the body as the Asanti names imply. (Heine, 1966).


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Summary

Eremomastaxspeciosa has its highest phytochemical constituent in the flavonoids, which are the secondary metabolites that are widespread throughout the plant kingdom, based on their backbone structure, flavonoids are divided into chalcone, flavonols and Anthocyanins. Flavonoid have antioxidant, anti microbial properties and as antioxidants they protect against oxidative damage. That is why many people in Africa go for herbs because of the constituent and benefit they gain after the treatment, (Heine, 1960).


5.1 Conclusion

From this study, it can be said that the leaf extracts of Eremomastaxspeciosa contain some bioactive principle and are therefore therapeutically active as fertility enhancing plants. These pharmacological properties are attributed to their phytochemical constituents, (Adjanohouneta’l, 1996).


5.2 Recommendation

Base on the phytochemical screening of Eremomastaxspeciosa, it recommended that people who cannot afford money of going to hospital, should go to traditional medicine practioner (Tmps) for their health needs. It is also recommended that people who are suffering from internal heat, infertility should consult their traditional medicine practitioner (Tmps) on how to use Erenomastaxspeciosa leave, (Obeneta’l, 2006).


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