Comparative Phytochemical Analyses Of Methanolic And Aqueous Leaf Extracts Of Three Medicinal Plants Used In Plant Disease Control

Project and Seminar Material for Botany

Comparative Phytochemical Analyses Of Methanolic And Aqueous Leaf Extracts Of Three Medicinal Plants Used In Plant Disease Control


Abstract


This study was conducted to compared phytochemical analyses of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control. Phyllanthus discoideus, Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus muellerianus. The phytohemicals were extracted from the parts of the three Phyllanthus species with methanol for qualitative and quantitative determination following standard procedures. The data obtained revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phenols, although at varying levels in the various parts of the Phyllanthus species. Generally, most of the phytochemicals are of higher concentration either in the leaves or stems than in the roots of the Phyllanthus species, but phenols appeared to be very low in the various parts of these plants. The pooled data showed that, there were more tannins, saponins and phenols in the leaves than in the stems and roots, but more of alkaloids in the stems and flavonoids in the roots. The highest alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols were extracted from Phyllanthus muellarianus while the highest saponins was extracted from Phyllanthus discoideus. The study showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenols in all the Phyllanthus species, but at varying concentrations in the various species and their parts. These differences in phytochemical levels would likely confer unique medicinal potentials on the various parts of each of these species.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.0 Background of the Study

A large number of chemicals have been developed for the control of plant diseases, but due to the growing awareness of the hazardous side effects of these chemicals, more emphasis is given to the use of bio control agents. One of the major challenges in the field of Plant Pathology is the need for some ecofriendly and safe alternative control strategies for agriculture, which has led researchers to turn their attention to plant extracts as sources of bio-control agents. Therefore, growing of most plants and tress now goes beyond afforestation purposes to making them available and accessible for exploitation for their natural chemical composition vis-à-vis their usefulness in the management and cure of both plant and animal diseases. These chemical compounds, known also as phytochemicals, provide defenses for the plants against diseases and other environmental factors. It is now evident that most of these plant chemicals could also be helpful in the treatment of both animal and human diseases.


1.1 Statement of the Problem

A significant number of chemicals developed for the control of plant diseases, have hazardous side effects .A greater need is been placed on the use of plant extract Therefore, growing of most plants and tress now goes beyond afforestation purposes to making them available and accessible for exploitation for their natural chemical composition vis-à-vis their usefulness in the management and cure of both plant and animal diseases. These chemical compounds, known also as phytochemicals, provide defenses for the plants against diseases and other environmental factors. Hence the problem confronting the study is to conduct a comparative phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control


1.2 Objective of the Study

The objective of the study is conduct a comparative phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control


1.3 Research Questions

What is the nature of phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control.


1.4 Significance of the Study

The study provides an understanding of the fact that growing of most plants and tress now goes beyond afforestation purposes to making them available and accessible for exploitation for their natural chemical composition vis-à-vis their usefulness in the management and cure of both plant and animal diseases. These chemical compounds, known also as phytochemicals, provide defenses for the plants against diseases and other environmental factors. It is now evident that most of these plant chemicals could also be helpful in the treatment of both animal and human diseases.


1.5 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the comparative phytochemical analysis of methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of three medicinal plants used in plant disease control


1.6 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted by logistics and geographical constraint


1.7 Definition of Terms

Medicinal Plant Defined

A medicinal plant is a plant that is used to attempt to maintain health, to be administered for a specific condition, or both, whether in modern medicine or in traditional medicine.

Antioxidant Defined

Antioxidant can be broadly defined as any substance that delays or inhibits oxidative damage to a target molecule[5]. The characteristic feature of an antioxidant is ability to scavenge the free radicals due to their redox hydrogen donators and singlet oxygen quencher

Free Radical Defined

A free radical is defined as any atom or molecule possessing unpaired electrons. The reactive oxygen species are oxygen derived free radicals such as superoxide anion (O2), hydroxyl (OH•), hydroperoxyl (OOH•), peroxyl (ROO•) and alkoxyl (RO•) radicals and non-free radicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochorous acid (HOCl), ozone (O3) and singlet oxygen (O2).


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In conclusion, the study showed that, the methanol extracts of the three Phyllanthus species contain alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and phenols and this justifies their use in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases. There is variation in the phytohemical composition of the various parts of the three Phyallanthus species and this establishes the fact that, these plants parts may not have same medicinal potentials. Most of the phytochemicals were of higher concentration in the leaves, followed by the stems and lowest in the roots.


5.2 Recommendation

It is recommended that, further studies should be carried out to quantify the phytochemicals in other Phyllanthus species, in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological region of Nigeria.


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