Preliminary Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Screening Of Flower And Stalk Of Mangifera Indica (Opioro Mango)

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Chemistry

Preliminary Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Screening Of Flower And Stalk Of Mangifera Indica (Opioro Mango)


Abstract


Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is a member of the cashew family. Mango is one of the most important and widely cultivataed fruits of the tropic world. Its roots and bark are astringent, acrid, anti-inflamatory and constipating. The plant stalk and flower were screened for the presence of phytochemicals of interest like alkanoids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, total ash, moisture content etc. Antimicrobial and antifungal activity of the plant extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and candida albican. The antimicrobial activity of this plant extract against test organisms showed strong inhibitory effects against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. The occurrence of these pharmacological active constituents with therapeutic functions suggest that it can be used to cure diseases and also substantiate the herbalist claims that the plant stalks and flower can be employed successfully to treat many diseases caused by these organisms and also the need to develop and commercialize new herbal remedies for dermatomycoses utilizing a lolenol of existing and new knowledge derived from collaboration between modern scientist and traditional African heafers all to the greater development of our pharmaceutical industry.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Origin: Mango (Mangifera indica) (Opioro)is a native to Southern Asia especially Burma and Eastern India. It is a member of cashew family (Anacardiacee) on of the most important and widely cultivataed fruits of the tropic world.
Mango is considered as a king in Indian delicacy. The roots and bark of mango Mangifera indica (Anacardiceae) are astringent , acrid, anti-inflamatory and constipating.

The leaves and flowers are refrigerant, styptic vulnerable and constipating dried or dehydrated products of urine mango flesh in the form of peeled sliced or powder) is used as an acidulant or a souring agent for curies.
The tree is evergreen, often reaching 50 to 60 and attaining great age.

Leaves are lanceolate, up to 12 inches long, the flowers small, pinkish and franggrant, are borne in large ferminal panicles. The fruits varies in seized and character, the smallest mangoes are no longer than plums while others may weigh 4 to 5 pds. Its form is oval, oval round, heart shape, kidney shape or long and slender. Some varieties are beautifully coloured with shades of red and yellow, while other are dull green.

The single large seed is flattened, the flesh that surrounds. It is yellow to orange in colour, juicy sweet and of delicious spicy flavor, mangoes are a rich source of vitamin A, C and D, the uripe fruit is acidic, astringent and antislobutic, the ripe fruit is antislorbutic, diuretic laxative, anvigorating, flattening and astringent sum slices ot unripe.

Fruit is very useful in scurvy. The fried skin of the unripe fruit is given with sugar in menorhagia the fruit juice increases sexual vigour and sexual strength. It cures impotency. The ripe fruit is often used as a sexual tonic.

Adaptation

Mango basically require a frost free climate. Flowers and small fruit can be killed if temperature drops below 400C even for a short period. Young tree may be seriously damaged.

Growth Habit

Mango tree make handsome landscape specimen and shade trees. They are fast growing with sufficient heat.

Soil

Mango will grow in almost any well drained soil whether sandy, loamy or clay heavy wet soil. A PH between 5 -7 and 7 – 5 is preferred. Mango needs a deep soil to accommodate their extensive root systems.

Irrigation

Irrigation should start when the weather warms.

Culture

The mango grows to a good size and casts a dense shade, but the roots are not destructive. It acquires full sun and perfect air drainage in winter.

It does best at the top or middle level of a slope if wind breaks should be provided in exposed area. The trees may also need staking in the desert.

It needs the shade of other trees. Or plant on the North side of the house in the garden plant against a south wall or in an area surrounded by paying to provide maximum heat in the green house full light and free air movement are important to avoid disease.

Fruits

  • The fruits grow at the end of long string like stem (the upper particle) with sometimes two or more fruits to a stem.
  • The fruits are 2 to 9 inches long and may be kidney shape.
  • The flower scar at the apex is predominantly in some cultivars plugging from the fruit.
  • The leathery skin is waxy and smooth and when sap (ie) that is irritating to some people.
  • The quantity of the fruit is passed on the scanty of fibre and animal turpentine taste.
  • The flesh of mango is peach like and juice with more or less numerous fibres radiating from the hunk of the single large kidney shaped seed. Fibres are more pronounced in fruits growth with chemical fertilizers.
  • The flavor is pleasant and rich high in acid and sugars. The seeds either have embryo producing one seeding or piovembronic producing several seeding that are identical but not always true to the same fruit.
  • Some seedlings produce numerous tiny pathennocarpic fruit which fall to develop and abort mango trees tend to be alternate bearing.
  • The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe containing edible medocarp of varying thickness. It is resinous and highly variable with respect to shape and size chlorophyll, carotenes, anthocyanins and xanthophylls are all present in the fruit, although chlorophyll disappears during ripening, where as authocyanins and carotenoids increase with maturity.
  • Fruit colour at maturity is genotype – dependent. Fruit of Bombay green is greenish – yellow, dasheshari goa and Arumanis are yellow and Haden, Keih and Tommy Atkins have a striling red blush.

Objective of this Research

The aims and objectives of this research are:

  1. To screen the flower and stalk of Mangifera indica for the presence of phytochemicals of interest.
  2. To evaluate the anti-microbial eddiciency of the flower and stalt of Mangifera indica.

Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

Discussion

This work is s preliminary investigation of the active ingredient in the stalk of Mangifera indica vari (Opioilo mango) preliminary phytochemical screening result the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, tannins, total ash, moisture content etc. man has utilized alkaloids as medicine.

Some flavonoids such as quercetin glycoside reltin is used much in medicine and it has a protective function in preventing capillary fragility that is, it causes haemolysis of the red blood coupuscles. An economically significant property of flavonoid is their contribution to taste in foods, some compounds are bitter, others are sweet and yet others astringent. The presence of these phytochemical bases in Mangifera indica account for its usefulness as a medicinal plant.

Tannins ensure inhibition of micro organism by coagulating their protoplasm.

Saponins are found to be antimicrobial

From the organleptic examination, the astringency was responsible for the stomach sensation ability of the plant stalk due to the fact that astringent properties of plants help to dry and reduce the inflammation of the gastric mucus membrane. The physical parameter also shows the stalk and the flower to be good.

The plant extract tested for anti microbial activity showed strong inhibitory effects against test organism. E. Coli, S. aureus gave maximum susceptibility to the test extract. Hence, the antimicrobial and the antifungal spectrum of the extract of Mangifera indica is broad, scanning across gram positive and gram negative organisms. The occurrence of these pharmacological active constituents with therapeutic functions suggest that it can be used to cure diseases and also substantiate the herbalist claims that the plant stalk and flower can be employed successfully to treat many diseases caused by staphylococcus aureus and candida albican.


Conclusion

The phytochemical analysis of Mangifera indica showed many bioactive constituents of the stalk and flower like alkanoids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, phenol, total ash, etc and his indicated the therapeutic potentials of this stalk and flower many of these consituents aapart from being biological active are known to have some therapeution application especially, alkanoids, flavonoids and tannins, it might be important to add that the various infections to which this stalk and flower is used for bear a direct relationship with different pharma compounds present in the stalk and flower.

Heavy antimicrobial activity of the plant against E. coli, S aureus signify that the leaf seed could be used in the cure and management of various diseases by these organisms.

The need to develop new antifungal drugs has become relevant in the light of significant toxicity, high cost and non-availability of existing antifungal and antibacterial drugs. In particular, there is a desire on the part of some to develop and commercialize new herbal remedies for dermatomycoses utilizing a lolenol of existing and new knowledge derived from collaboration between modern scientist and traditional African heafers all to the greater development of our pharmaceutical industry.


Recommendation

Since the pharmacological screening of stalk and flower of Mangifera indica confirms the medicinal values of this plant and since the plant grows abundantly in this part of the world, they are highly recommended to be tapped as local source for potential medicinal applications more especially in this issue if aldultrated and expired drugs.
Also, much work still remains to be carried out on this plant. Detection of other antimicrobial and antifungal activity.

Even the use of this plant and its derivatives for the primary purpose of flavouring and preserving foods, will be of interest for further study. Hence it has been recommended that the structure of the active compounds, its dosages and toxicological effects should be exhaustively investigated on using more sophisthicated analytical instruments.


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