Issues And Challenges Of Retirement Of Civil Servant

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Issues And Challenges Of Retirement Of Civil Servant


This research work is poised to look into the ‘’Issues and Challenges of Retirement of Civil Servant’’ (A case study of Kogi State Public Service) The research work is divided into five chapters with each chapter linking each other. The objectives of the research include: to investigate the issues and challenges in retirement as they affect civil servants in Kogi State. Two methods of data collection were used i.e. the primary and secondary sources of data and the data was analyzed using chi square method for easy understanding.

A sample size of 105 respondents was drawn from 525 retirees in Kogi State civil service. It was found that majority of retirees in Kogi State encounter retirement challenges. Prominent among which are irregular payment of pension and accommodation problem. Adjustment of life style to a moderate one was found to be one of the coping strategies of retirees, and the following were recommendations from the findings, it is recommended that; Kogi State Government must rise to the occasion by promptly paying the Gratuity and pension of its retirees. There should be upward review of pensioners monthly allowances and finally both the federal and State Government should provide an enabling environment for retirees to engage themselves usefully.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

No 102 of 1979 stipulate that officer is due for retirements with pension and gratuity after ten (10) years or thereafter for a period of not less than thirteen (13) years. Despite the provision with regards to public services retirement, it is worth mentioning that the management of retirement in public service is not done in accordance to the provisions.

However, we have experience cases whereby civil servants are retired meritoriously without given their retirement benefits. In many cases or situations, the retired officer dies after some numbers of years before the benefits are paid. This ugly situation has been the driving forces behind officer indulging in unethical conduct of falsifying rewards without hope of retirement benefits. The multiplier effect of this ugly trend is that some dead woods in service are not willing to let go for the young productive ones. The order to curb this pathetic situation, it is very imperative that all efforts should be geared towards placing. The right machinery for the management of retirement benefits which is vital to eliminate the most prevail practice of falsification of records to remain in service endlessly. More so, this research work intends to look at the issues involved in the management of retirement in the civil services with a view to recommending means and measured by which it can be improved.

Retirement has been defined as a state of being withdrawn from business, public life or active service. According to the Industrial Training Fund, Centre for Excellence (2004), retirement is a real transition. In the views of Kemps and Buttle (1979) cited in Ubangba and Akinyemi (2004), retirement is a transfer from one way of life to another; they noted that many people suffer from retirement shock such as a sense of deprivation during the early period of their retirement. In the opinion of Olusakin (1999), retirement involves a lot of change in values, monetary involvements and social aspects of life. Olusakin further noted that for some retirees, it leads to termination of a pattern of life and a transition to a new one. However, Billings (2004) described retirement as the transition from first adulthood to second adulthood which is often a jarring and unsettling experience. It follows from these descriptions/definitions of retirement that a retired person or retiree is any person who performs no gainful employment during a given year or any person who is receiving a retirement pension benefit and any person not employed on full time, all year round after his/her disengagement from a previous work schedule. It is deducible; therefore, that retirement implies a transition from active working life at youthful age with adequate financial capacity to less rigorous work schedule or lack of any tangible work schedule at old age.

Retirement is a fluid concept because it connotes different things and is fraught with different experiences for different people. While some individuals view it positively and anticipate it with nostalgia others dread its eventuality with great anxiety. Thus, it could be said that it is not a homogenous experience for everyone. Retirement is a time of significant transition as far as the use of time is concerned. However, the importance of retirement is made more glaring by the fact that the retired person is made to face some challenges because of his/her new status (as a retired person). It has been noted that retirement is a stressful experience to many because of its associated life decision change in the matter of life arrangement generally. It has been postulated by Elezua (1998) that the moment retirement comes knocking on the door (of an employee) it enters with challenges and expectations. Retirement is typically associated with attendant stress for the average employee especially in a country like Nigeria with austere economic policies.

1.2 Statement of Problem

At retirement, a worker discontinues from doing a particular work for which he/she has been known for a long period of time. In the public/civil service, the government no longer requires the service of the individual, and he/she is placed on monthly pension. In most of the sub-saharan African Countries like Nigeria, where government battles the irregularity in the payment of monthly salaries of work force, prompt release of monthly stipend to those who have disengaged from the service has been a major challenge. Consequently, most workers close to age of retirement exercise a lot of fears of the unknown after retirement. Real life experiences have shown that pensioners often face some challenges after retirement that has consequential effects on the socio-economic and physiological well being. It is obvious that gratuities are not paid promptly most especially by most state governments and this throws retirees into the realm of uncertainty and inability to take socio-economic decisions. In the light of the above, it is essential to conduct a survey to actually ascertain some of the challenges faced by the retirees in Kogi State towards making useful suggestions to ameliorate them and improve the life of the retirees. This is the main thrust of thisstudy.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to examine various post-retirement challenges experienced by workers who retired from the service of Kogi State. The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To determine if issues and challenges in retirement affect civil servants in Kogi State.
  2. To determine if there are contributing factors to the success or failure of retirement of civil servants in Kogi State.
  3. To make suitable recommendations based on our findings in order to ameliorate the challenges facing civil services in Kogi State.

1.4 Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis Formulation

A research hypothesis is a statement which is assumed to be true on which an argument may be based. A research hypothesis should be viewed as a probable statement which seeks at the minimum to relate one phenomenon or variable to another (Oguonu and Anugwam (2006).

The following are therefore the hypothesis the researcher intends to test in this study.

Hypothesis One
  • Ho: Issues and challenges in retirement do not affect civil servants in Kogi State.
  • Hi: Issues and challenges in retirement affect civil servants in Kogi State.
Hypothesis Two
  • Ho: There are no contributing factors to the success or failure of retirement of civil servants in Kogi State.
  • Hi: There are contributing factors to the success or failure of retirement of civil servants in Kogi State.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The need to understudy the nature of post-retirement stress cannot be over emphasized because of its implication on the significant demography of the aging population. Several population enumerations have consistently shown that the retirees occupy a significant proportion of the country’s population. This study on the nature/type of management strategies used by retirees and the counseling implication is timely now that a lot of concerns have been raised on the welfare of the retirees. The Federal Government has reviewed the failure of past policies on pensions with a view to experimenting new scheme. The current Pension Scheme enacted by Federal Legislature is expected to address the problems of non release of pensions, irregular payment of entitlements, corruption in pension administration that have further impoverished the socio-economic conditions of the retirees. Findings from this study will enrich the current data base on pension management. It will also serve as a useful document for pension administrators, government and retirees on how to handle pension issues in the country.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study covers the retired Civil Servants in Kogi State. The study is concerned with the analysis of the retirement stress and the coping strategies. The study as it is, has some limitations which include among others, finance, time, co-operation of respondents and the inability to expand the time available to the researcher to reach all retired civil servants in Kogi State. We are however consoled by the fact that retirees have their peculiarities particularly as they attend a joint meeting of retired civil servants. Lack of full co-operation of respondents is another limiting factor and their reluctance and delay in accepting and filling the questionnaire because of lack of interest and their belief that the outcome of the research may not have direct impact on them.

Another limitation is inadequacy of Literature.

The above identified Limitations notwithstanding, the findings of the study are considered valid and reliable. This is because the inadequacy of information from primary sources was complemented with information from secondary sources such as Textbook, Journal, Official Publications, Government Gazettes, etc.

1.7 Definition of Terms

The research considered it necessary to define the following terms as they are being applied within the context of the project work.


According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (6thedition), commission means an official group of people who have been given responsibility to control or find out about person. For purpose of this work, it is a group of important officers chosen for a particular responsibility.

Retirement Benefits:

These are benefits paid to an officer on his exist from the service if he was appointed under permanent and pensionable circumstances.


It means a person employed into an established grade at the public service but do not include officers on temporary contract appointment. Medical board: Medical board is appointed by commissioner or by any other person pursuant to a delegation of power under section 20 of decree No 102 of 1979 to assess the disbursement of benefit to an officer.

Next of kin:

Is the person whose names are written by the diseased officer on his records officer of the Ministry of time established, or furnished by him in written at the time dealt to that ministry

Pensionable Services:

Means service which may be taken into account in computing an officers pension under this decree.

Final Pay:

Simply means in respect of an officer whose appointment has terminated or (if he was on daily pay rate of pay for thirty one days) multiply log is in respect of the last substantive rate held by him immediately before the end of this services.

Pensionable Emolument:

In the respect to an officer, it means the salary attached to the last substantive rank by the officer and do not include any allowance.

Transfer Value:

This is the accepted amount paid in discharge of pension liability in respect to an officer services.


It could means termination of service by retirement or been forceful retired.

Mandatory Retirement:

It is the causation of service aer an officer have served for a maximum of ten years.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This project work comprises five chapters. The first is the study foundation for the topic. It consists of introduction of the study and the problem facing public service in Kogi State. The second chapter deals with literature review of the topic as well as defining some concepts and overview of some learned scholars in public services. The third chapter is the historical background of civil service in Kogi State in particular. Chapter four examines all relevant data collected which undertaking the research project, data presentation in the tabular form and data analysis. Finally, the fifth chapter seeks to summarize the finding of the research work in a conclusive way and then make a recommendation with respect to the concluding evidence

Chapter Five

Summary Conclusion and Recommedations

5.1 Introduction

it is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to investigate issues and challenges of retirement of civil servant.

5.2 Summary

This study aimed at having an overview of the issues and challenges of retirement of civil servant. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and the hypotheses were tested using the Chi square while the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.

5.3 Conclusion

It can be concluded from findings of this study that retirees in Kogi State are facing some stress and there are a number of coping strategies that are in place to mitigate the effect.

It can also be concluded from the findings of this study that retirement at present is generally stressful for retired civil servants in Kogi State. It can also be inferred that retired civil servants in Kogi State are experiencing retirement stress from ten (10) broad sources. According to the study, they have acknowledged using ten (10) different retirement stress management strategies. It is clear from the findings of this study that there are both sex and educational differences in the perception of retirement stress by the retired civil servants in Kogi State.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that;

  1. Kogi State Government must rise to the occasion by promptly paying the Gratuity and pension of itsretirees.
  2. There should be upward review ofpensions.
  3. Government should provide an enabling environment for retirees to engage themselves usefully.
  4. Like in other States, Kogi State Government should obtain loans to liquidate the entitlements of itsretirees.
  5. It is recommended that all workers and retirees should avail themselves of the total package of retirement strategies advocated by Marceau (1998). According to the author, the retirement planning should reflect the individual’s dreams, hopes and aspirations in addition to meeting day- to day obligations.
  6. Retirees should engage in small scale farming or other similar activities.
  7. It is essential that all prospective retirees should begin with personal goal setting exercise that reflects how the individual wants to spend the last third of his/her life. The question is not just “can I afford it?” It is also “how do I want to spend the last time I haveleft?”.
  8. Retirement benefits should be budgeted in advance so that retirees can be paid as theyretire.
  9. Kogi State Government should as a matter of urgency implement the contributory pension scheme of the Federal Government.
  10. Counterpart funds should be paid to State without any further delay.

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