Workers’ Perception Of Retirement And Its Implication On Productivity (A Study Of Federal Polytechnic, Oko)
This research work was made to discover how workers perceive retirement and its implication for productivity using Federal Polytechnic, Oko as a case study. The case study is an institution of higher learning. It was established in 1992 through the collective effort of the community. It is located in Orumba North Local Government Area in Anambra State. The institution comprises of academic, non-academic and junior staff. This research work is intended to see whether it has anything to do with the way workers discharge their duties, if it is affecting them negatively to suggest possible ways that will help in correction of mistakes. Moreover, the study used one thousand, four hundred and three (1, 403) workers of which five hundred and twenty-one (521) was sampled out using a simple random sampling technique. Furthermore, questionnaire was used in obtaining the information for analysis. Finally, the result of the research showed that workers have started perceiving the retirement policy more positively especially the staff in Federal Polytechnic, Oko. Also, provisions were made to provide pre-retirement programmes to the staff. In order to equip them and make them to adopt to the dynamic world when they eventually leaves the work force. They were also encouraged to invest in a lucrative business while still in active service.
1.1 Background of the Study
Federal Polytechnic Oko is an institution of higher learning situated within Oko town in Orumba North Local Government Area in Anambra State. The institution was the brain child of Oko Progressive Union (OPU) that was headed by its chairman, former Executive Vice President of Federal Republic of Nigeria, Dr. Alex Ekwueme, Ide of Aguata in 1979. The institution was approved by the then Anambra State Government and designated as College of Arts and Science designed to prepare candidates for General Certificate of Education (GCE) Examination both at ordinary and advanced levels. The school went on like this for some time, but on June 28, 1980, the institution was upgraded to the status of College of Arts, Science and Technology. The college was formalized as the Anambra State Polytechnic, Oko through edict No 12 of 1985.
In 1992, the Federal Government of Nigeria under the leadership of Chief Ernest Shonekon, head of the transition government and the Anambra State Governor, Dr. Chukwuemeka Ezeife (Okwudike) and the Minister of Education, Prof. Ben Nwabueze, changed the school into a federal school called, Federal Polytechnic, Oko, Anambra State.
Workers perception of retirement and its implications on productivity (A Study of Federal Polytechnic, Oko) was seen as an important issue which research must be carried out on because of the way various workers are viewing it (retirement).
In section (4) (1) of the pension decree, the statutory age of retirement for public service is 60 years. Judicial officers and academic staff of universities retires at the age of 70 and 65 years respectively. However, the civil service re-organization decree No. 43 of 1998 added the modification that officers should now retire from service on attaining the age of 60 or 35 years whichever comes first. The qualifying service of 10 years is for pension. It is also aimed at discovering how retirement affects the level of production in the institution to know if the perception has anything to do with the way in which workers put in their best or work in the institution. It also aimed at knowing if it has anything to do within the level of production to look for an alternative for amendment and work towards correcting those abnormalities made in the past.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Fixed retirement age have been fixed and implemented in countries like Nigeria and United State of American. In Nigeria, a person is to retire if he/she has attained the age of 60 years and 70 years for judicial officers, yet, when a person is getting due for retirement, the person still feels bad. Then, when they finally retire, they may not afford to take care of themselves talk more of their family.
People detest going for retirement because of fear of how to fit into the society, meet their family financial needs and still live up to expected. This is because of non-payment of pension and at times may be delayed or paid half due to the corruption nature of our leaders and Nigeria non-implementation of policy and inconsistency. This makes the workers to manipulate their ways to any level when they are still on sit and enrich themselves and even when they cannot work again, giving room to unproductivity in the institution.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Despite the fact that few studies have been carried out on retirement, the research work would find out more on how workers would perceive retirement policy in Nigeria.
The main purpose of this research work is to investigate how workers perceive retirement ant its implication on productivity and if their perception would affect their productivity level in their place of work. Other objectives include:
- To find out the various pre-retirement and post-retirement programmes available to workers.
- To find out how the workers perceives the retirement policy in Nigeria.
- To find out how the existing retirement policy will change and enhance workers perception on productivity.
This especially concerning the staff of Federal Polytechnic, Oko where the perception would have an effect on workers’ productivity either positively or negatively.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are going to guide our study:
- To what extent has the workers’ pre-retirement and post-retirement policy in Nigeria been implemented?
- To what extent has the workers’ perception of retirement affected their productivity?
- How do Nigeria workers view retirement and its policy?
1.5 Theoretical Framework
This research work is anchored on behavioural modification theory by B.F. Skinner who believed that all behaviour can be shaped and managed so as to achieve a potentially ideal individual in a potentially idea society. This theory is based on the law of effect on the principles that, if behaviour is reinforced, the chances that it will repeat are high. The theory calls for positive reinforcement of desired behaviour.
B.F. Skinner (1954) believed that the best way to modify behaviour was to modify environment. The closer position
reinforcement follows desired behaviour, the more likely it will occur. At all level of an organization, the way the workers perceives the retirement policy at their working place will definitely affect the way they put in their best into the organization towards the realization of the organizational goal. Researchers has shown that positive reinforcement is more effective than negative one in achieving lasting changes in behaviour. The Nigeria government should ensure that the workers at both federal and state, even local government gets all the titles due to them while at work so as to enable them to be honest in their duties and put in their best so as to achieve efficiency and productivity.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study is very important as it would clarify the various misconception associated with policy of retirement.
The study would provide information for modifying the retirement policy and also for modification of already existing pre-retirement programmes for Nigeria workers.
The programme and policies if modified will bring a sense of belonging to those workers that are concerned. It will also help Nigeria workers to view retirement in the right direction.
Finally, the study will provide basis for the modification of organizational goals set in the organization for the welfare of both the workers and eth organization.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study on workers’ perception of retirement and its implication on productivity will be limited at Federal Polytechnic, Oko in Orumba North Local Government in Anambra State among the academic, non-academic and junior staff of the institution.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In this research work, efforts were made to cover such areas that are necessary like examining the minds of the workers and those retirees.
In the cause of the research, there was a great deal of shortcomings starting from both nature of the research and the stock of available information.
Finance constituted a major set-back in carrying out the research work. The cost of transportation to those retirees various destination coupled with other expenses.
This study became a success because the researcher was able to visualize and gather information from available sources she could lay her hand on, also with little money with her and contributions from siblings, then she was able to browse and get much more information than expected and part of the money was used by the researcher for transportation.
1.9 Definition of Terms
It means cessation from active work having reached the retirement age set out by the employees.
It is earning payable at a regular interval to someone who retired from a pensionable employment.
It means workers output as a result of what they put into the job. The efficiency with which things are done or produced.
This is the process of expanding energy in order to yield something tangible.
v. Retirement policy:
Is a law made by the government on the rules guiding retirement of workers.
Retirement policy states that a worker at sixty years or a worker who has worked for thirty-five years should disengage from pensionable employment.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
In this chapter, the researcher summarized his findings, concludes his research work and also makes some recommendations.
This study has been undertaken to examine and find out the various pre-retirement and post-retirement programmes available to workers. How the workers perceive the retirement policy in Nigeria and also to find out how the existing retirement policy will change and enhance workers perception on productivity.
In the course of findings on how workers and their retirement programmes relates to their productivity, the researcher uses simple random sampling technique after stratifying the population due to its heterogeneous nature and sampled out 521 respondents which was the sample size. Also, structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from the respondents to know their view on the topic under study. 521 questionnaires were administered while 500 collected and 21 lost. Also simple percentage was employed in the analysis of the data. In the course of this research work through the data analysis, it was observed that majority of the workers truly understand what retirement is all about and as well understand the various pre-retirement and post-retirement programmes available to them and its benefit. It was also observed that the workers really saw the need of retirement in their career life. Just as the workers of Federal Polytechnic, Oko agrees with the researcher that retirement is necessary in the institution; also, they are aware of all the retirement policies and programmes available to them.
Then, the researcher believes that if much sensitization and education of workers concerning retirement and its policy, much productivity will be achieved in a shorter period.
Conclusively, the Nigeria workers in particular, Federal Polytechnic, Oko workers started perceiving the retirement policy in Nigeria more positively and are bound to continue in that way if the system did not change to bad situation, because, among the nine (9) questionnaires that was posted to workers, most of the respondents answers shows that they really know what we are talking about.
From all the questionnaire that was administered, the researcher observed that it was only non-payment and delay in workers’ payment of salaries and benefit could discourage them in carrying out their work which could affect their productivity if not well checked.
In view of the problem faced by workers after retirement, the following are suggested.
- The workers should be helped to develop a positive perception of what retirement is all about by making them have a sense of belonging through increasing their retirement benefits.
- Workers should also try to use their salaries effectively, for example, building residential houses in case of retirement and using some part of their salaries to invest in a lucrative business venture. This will ensure a place to retire to after one must have retired. Workers can also register as a member to co-operative societies and they can equally buy shares so as to cushion a bit with their retirement benefits. Information on co-operative societies could be obtained in the government ministries or one’s local government.
- Government should work out in advance modalities for payment of gratuity and pension immediately a worker retires. With this, it will enable the worker to prepare their mind towards retirement. This eliminates unnecessary fear that is common among retirees.
- Government should also organize in-service training, house loan and scholarship schemes for the workers children.
With these suggestions, I strongly believe that the negative perception most workers have towards retirement would be reduced and if possible erased completely.
Some of the respondents stated that workers tend to be unproductive if they are informed that their retirement is at hand. Some of them also indulge in carrying away government properties as well as selling off some of the belongings of the government. Their major reason for such act is that since they are retiring, there is little need to work very hard and be productive, because they will be leaving the work place very soon. Some that carry away government property said that is because after retirement, they will have little or no financial backing to supplement their daily living.
Most respondents states that no relationship exists between the retirement policy of Nigeria and productivity; that something reasonable should be done to increase the level of productivity especially on those who are about to retire.
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