Effects Of Staff Evaluation On The Productivity Of Civil Servants (A Case Study Of Enugu State Civil Service, Enugu State)
The research is embarked upon in order to analytically ascertain and explain the fact of staff evaluation on the productivity of civil servants. A study of Enugu state civil service. The study also seeks to examine and evaluate the effects of staff evaluation: highlight the problems encountered and proffering solutions to them, that is, state findings are recommendations.
The study consists of an introduction and the following related subheadings, background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope and of the study, hypothesis which arose from the objectives etc. again review of literature, research methodology, presentation and analysis of data and finally summary of findings. The main of this research is to provide a clear and comprehensive survey of the effects of staff evaluation as regards how it affects the productivity of civil service.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Table Of Contents
- List Of Tables
- List Of Figures
- 1.1 Background Of The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance Of Study
- 1.6 Scope Of Study
- 1.7 Limitation Of The Study
- 1.8 Definition Of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Functions And Objectives Of Enugu State Civil Service Commission
- 2.2 Reasons For Staff Evaluation
- 2.2.1 Types Of Employee Performance Evaluation
- 2.2.2 Strategies For Staff Evaluation
- 2.2.3 Staff Evaluation, Problems And Solutions
- 2.3 Theoretical Framework
3.0 Research Design And Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Sources/Method Of Data Collection
- 3.3 Population And Sample Size
- 3.4 Sampling Techniques
- 3.5 Validity And Reliability Of Measuring Instrument
- 3.6 Method Of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation And Analysis Of Data
- 4.1 Presentation Of Data
- 4.2 Interpretation Of Result
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary Of Findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background Of The Study
Public organizations are created to ensure rapid socio-economic development through the initiation, implementation and evaluation of government policies and programme in order to improve and better the lives of the masses of the nation. As an aid in achieving its objectives, resources, both human and otherwise are allocated to be efficiently and effectively utilized in respect to that.
The origin of public organization in Nigeria could be tied to the genesis of civil service in Nigeria and this dates back to about to middle of the nineteen century when direct British rule was established over the kingdom and territory of Lagos after its conquest in 1861 (Uche, 2004:47). During this period, the existing public organizations (that is, the civil service) was perceived as an instrument set up to implement and execute the self centered exploitative, policies and programmes of the British intention. Observing the point Okoli and Onah (2000:73) posited that the colonial civil service was machinery.
It is quite a pity that inspite of the numerous public organizations in existence and the huge amount of resources channeled to keep them functional, the performance of civil servants in terms of productivity is very low and hardly felt by the average man in the society. The socio-economic condition of the country is deteriorating at a very fast rate as the days go by and poverty is on the increase.
Touched with the present poor performance of civil servants, scholars, committees, researchers, bureau and many investigate and administrative study groups have written journals and books, organized seminars and conferences to determine the root cause to the problems of civil servants and if possible offer solutions where necessary. However the common problems given by scholars for the unproductiveness of public workers also known as civil servants are corruption, over staffing, godfathers, politicization, red-tapism and management.
Be that as it may, the government of Nigeria has initiated and put in place programmes orientation programs, in service, training, study leave with pay, staff development programmes, staff evaluation, to mention that the researcher intends to critically examine one of these aforementioned programme, that is staff evaluation to know if it has any impact on the productivity and performance of public organizations workers in Nigeria.
1.1 Statement Of The Problem
The performance of civil servants in Nigeria has become a subject of national debate and hence a matter of crucial policy agenda of the governments of this country for the past two decades, few among the problems of leading to the poor productivity of civil servants will be discussed below:
First and one of the major problems of civil servants is corruption. Corruption according to Amalu (2003:328) is an exploitation of the public which can occur only because of the civil (public) servants occupies a constitutionally independent position, it is obvious that corruption by the above definition has eaten so deep into the fabrics of the Nigerian society that is Nigerians. Public servants now see public organizations as a platform for looting and siphoning funds and resources meant for the proper functioning of these organizations.
The concept of “godfatherism” is yet another problem confronting the efficient and effective performance of the public organizations. It has become so pronounced that it is now accepted as a tradition and the only way one can get fixed into any of the public organizations in Nigeria when these so called civil servants through the influence of their godfather get into these organizations, all their intentions is to satisfy their self interest and that of their godfather mentors to the detriment of the organizational goals and objectives.
The problem of politicalization This endemic and sickly phenomenon is pronounced in Nigeria that virtually all appointment into these organizations must have political trappings for underpinnings. Appointments are given as a reward to subservient party affiliates and loyalties whether they are qualified for the position or not.
Having a comprehensive understanding and clear picture of the Olympian height of politicization in Nigeria, Onah (2003:23) noted that, a consistent way in which the federal government encroaches on the powers of the state government is through politicization of government bureaucracies.
It can be adduced from the above statement that civil servants who are politically appointed will automatically dance to the tune and directive of the party dictates as against that of the organization. As a result, the organization will be lacking in philosophy as there will be conflicting directives.
However, it is in line with above problems that the researcher intends to carry out in-depth study on staff evaluation to know whether it has any impact on the productivity and performance of public organization workers in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The proper objective of this research is to determine the effect of staff evaluation on the productivity of civil servants:
- Find out the relationship between staff evaluation and productivity of Enugu state civil service commission.
- Find out the factors that hinder effective and efficient staff evaluation in Enugu state civil service commission (ESCSC).
- To proffer solution to the identified problems.
1.4 Research Question
- Is there any relationship between staff evaluation and the performance and productivity of Enugu state civil service commission?
- What are the factors that lead o effective and efficient staff evaluation in Enugu state civil service commission?
- How can these identified problems in Enugu state civil service commission be addressed?
1.5 Significance Of Study
This is undertaken out to ascertain the processes and procedures that are involved in staff evaluation and the impact it has on the performance and productivity of productivity of public organizations in Enugu state.
Since the work was completed using tests, experiments and experience both of the researcher and the respondents, it will be very advantageous to prospective academic researchers who made research on the same subject matter.
Theoretically, the study will contribute very much to the already literature on the subject area. Also in theory, the body of this research will provide ample opportunity for managers to adopt a favorable performance bossing method in improving the performance of their staff in organization.
Empirically, the results will be of immense benefit to the federal civil service commission (FCSC). The commission empowered among other things to determine the recruitment, appraisal, promotion and retirement of public organizational workers in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the study
For the obvious fact there exist numerous public organization in Nigeria, it will be very hectic for the researcher to cover the entire civil servants in the country.
Consequently, this study was narrowed down to Enugu state civil service commission, where all findings being equal, generalizations will be drawn.
1.7 limitation of the study
The reasons for parading this study to Enugu state civil service commission was due to some limitations encountered by the researcher which would have served as a major impediment to the success of this work.
Among these limitations, the major one was insufficient time, within the time frame given for this research, it was not easy for the researcher to conduct on exhaustive study on all staff of public organizations and at the same time attend to other academic engagements.
Insufficient financial support was another limitation to the research, a study of this nature requires enough money to enable the researcher gather relevant information and materials, cover transportation cost of regularly visiting the organization from her institution to obtain necessary data.
Yet another limitation of this study was the differently encountered by the research in convincing some of the workers to supply the needed information through the open ended part of the questionnaire administered by the researcher. Besides, some of the workers subjected the research to rigorous bureaucratic
However, despite these constraints, the researcher was successfully carried out through effective good tie and financial man in assembling extant and related literature.
1.8 Conceptual And Operational Definition Of Terms
For the better apprehension of this study of this nature, the following core concepts will be based on the specific meaning they represent. They are as follows:
- Staff evaluation
- Civil servants
1. Staff evaluation
The concept staff evaluation from the onset of this chapter has been defined differently by various scholars based on their social, political, cultural and ideological learning. We shall for this study, take staff evaluation to mean those standars, procedures and processes for assessing how well an employee performs his job reflectively in accordance with specific objectives and using the result obtained in the exercise to promote, retain, demote and if possible increase the salary of the workers of such employee.
2. Civil Servants
Civil servants are those persons who are employed into the institutions or establishment of state, to run and manage the day to day activity of the institution. They are officially also referred to as public servants.
For this research work, we shall narrowly see productivity as the measure of how well resources are brought together in organization and utilized for accomplishing a set of results.
5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Summary Of Finding
The aim of this research work is to critically analyze the impact of self evaluation on the productivity and performance of public organizations workers. From the statement of problems those inherent factors such as politicization, bribery and corruption, tribalism, nepotism to mention but a few that hinder public organizations worker from being effective and efficient were discussed to a reasonable extent. The objective of the study was basically to find out or determine those factors which hinder and impede staff evaluation exercise from improving the performance and productivity of public workers. For the scope of study, the researcher deemed the search right on Enugu State Civil Service Commission.
During the course of this research, extant and related literatures on the study was expounded and consulted from the literature review, hypothesis were stated of which the major one is to determine if there is a significant relationship between staff evaluation and the performance of public organization workers.
Management by objective was used for theoretical framework. The research is because among the numerous social theories, it best explains clearly the major aim of research on ground. The data which are relevant to the study were realized from both the primary (based only from the questionnaire) and secondary source for testing the hypothesis and analyzing of generated data from the questionnaire, this was done using the chi-square (X2) and simple percentage respectively.
However after necessary analysis and tests were conducted, it was observed kin the study that certain factors pose a serious impediment to staff evaluation exercise from being effective and efficient. Among these factor are; lack of autonomy, falsification of data among officials, indiscipline, hoarding of vital information, to name but a few. Be it as it may, the study gave some recommendations which if followed judiciously will help those in charge of carrying out staff evaluation exercise to improve the performance of public workers through the evaluation exercise.
During the course of this study, the following findings were observed by the researcher;
- Enugu State Civil Service Commission have a formal staff evaluation procedure for evaluating its staff.
- That the staff of Enugu State Civil Service Commission are evaluating once in a year, that is manually.
- Staff evaluation exercise which is carried out in Enugu State Civil Service Commission has a significant relationship with the performance and productivity of workers in the commission.
- Workers in Enugu State Civil Service Commission are performing below expectation because of how poorly the staff evaluation exercise is being conducted in the commission.
- The politicization of Enugu State Civil Service Commission has vehemently impeded the effectiveness of the staff evaluation exercise in the commission.
- Apart from politics, other factors which impede the staff evaluation exercise in the commission include; “favoritism, tribalism, corporatism, nepotism to mention but a few.
- High rate of bribery and corruption among the staff of Enugu State Civil Service Commission, especially on the side of those officials who are responsible for conducting the staff evaluation exercise.
- High rate of indiscipline among top ranking officials in the commission, which is manifested in the false data and information disclosed to the team of evaluators.
- Staff training and development in the commission is not determined by the result obtained from the staff evaluation exercise, but rather through some extraneous factors such as family affinity, tribalism, kinship ties etc.
- Besides, the staff training and development, other personnel decisions as regards promotion, demotion transfer, increase in salary, discipline and employment are not also determined by the staff evaluation exercise.
- The management of Enugu State Civil Service Commission finds it very difficult and tasking to identify the needs of its workers through the staff evaluation exercise. The reason is that the exercise is being used by the evaluating officials as an avenue to reward their loyalists, instead of identification of organizational objectives and individual needs.
- The staff of Enugu State Civil Service Commission especially the junior staff finds it difficult to reveal certain vital information during the evaluation exercise for fear of being victimized.
- The staff of Enugu State Civil Service Commission to put in their best in discharging their responsibility because their effort does not determine their reward in commission.
- The officials in-charge of the staff evaluation exercise in Enugu State Civil Service Commission lack total autonomy, that is why they are being influenced both from within and outside the commission.
Having carefully followed this research work, it is obvious that the importance of staff evaluation to both public and private organizations cannot be overemphasized. Through the evaluation exercise, management of public organizations will have the opportunity to identify the pressing needs of its workers, work on those need to make the workers improves on their performance.
In spite of the glaring benefit of staff evaluation exercise to public organizations, one of the greatest challenges of the evaluation exercise is the problem of lack of autonomy among the officials in charge of the exercise. For the fact that officials of the exercise are not completely autonomous the primary aim of the appraisal exercise, which is to improve on workers performance, will be truncated and frustrated.
It was also observed in the study that there are other factors which account for the failure of staff evaluation exercise to improve on the poor and sickening performance of public organizations workers. Among these factors are; bribery and corruption, “godfatherism”, falsification of data/information, tribalism, corporate groups, hoarding of information, lack of autonomy, politics, etc.
For these above problems to be stopped or better still, to be reduced to its barest minimum, management of public organizations should make sure that those who constitute the evaluation team be selected based on merit and adequate qualification. The reason for this assertion is that when they are chosen on merit, they will be free to carry out the evaluation exercise without any influences both from within and outside the organization.
In addition, owing to the fact that the success of the evaluation does not solely rest on the team of evaluators, but also on the public workers. The management of public organizations should also provide a form of job security to its workers; especially the junior staffs so as to enable them disclose useful information during the evaluation exercise.
Finally it is suggested that government should from time to time, sponsor seminars and workshops on staff evaluation to create the awareness of the benefits of the programmes to both the organization as the workers in the organization.
Based on the above findings, make the following recommendations:-
- Public organizations should do every thing possible within its output to regularly carryout its staff evaluation exercise appropriately and as when due. The reason is because through the evaluation, the management of these organization would be able to forma basis for personnel decision in respect to promotions, training, development, salary increase etc.
- The body in charge of evaluation exercise should be well paid and compensated so as to avoid a situation where they should be easily influenced from both within and outside the organization.
- Those who constitute the body of evaluator should be selected based on criteria such as merit, qualifications and experience, rather than on sentimental bases. When they are selected on merit, the officials of the evaluation exercise would not do anything that will damage their hard earned reputation as a result oriented staff evaluation exercise would be achieved at the end.
- Staff of public organization especially the top ranking officials should be well disciplined enough to provide the team of evaluate with correct or relevant data during the evaluation process. When the team of evaluators is presented with the correct data or information, they would be able to approve effectively and efficiently.
- Total autonomy should be granted to the team of efficient responsible for carrying out staff evaluation exercise in public organizations.
- The staff evaluation should be perceived as an instrument for the achievement of organizational objectives as well as means of rewarding to those staff that are dedicated to their duty, rather than used for compensating party loyalist and family affiliates.
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