Incidence Of Hypertension In Pregnancy Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Incidence Of Hypertension In Pregnancy Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of hypertension in a pregnant woman in Maiduguri. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of mothers and pregnant women in Maiduguri. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 70 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the rate at which hypertension is prevalent in pregnant women is very high. The study also revealed that the factors that leads to hypertension in pregnant women include; obesity, a family history of hypertension, alcohol intake, heart failure, stroke and left ventricular hypertrophy and smoking. It was further discovered that the effects of hypertension in pregnancy include; decreased blood flow to the placenta, low birth weight, premature birth, and Pre-eclampsia. To mention but a few. Therefore, it is recommended that primary care physicians should effectively assume their role so as ensure the early identification and management of hypertension during early antenatal care. And pregnant women should endeavour to seek for the services of a physician when having hypertension, and not rely on self medication and traditional treatments.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

High blood pressure is referred to as hypertension in medical terminology. When someone has hypertension, their systolic blood pressure (SBP) is more than 140 millimeters mercury (mm Hg), and their diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is greater than 90 millimeters mercury (mm Hg), according to the American Heart Association (Kofi, 2015). Individuals’ hypertension-related knowledge and actions have a critical role in managing hypertension and preventing the development of long-term consequences. People with hypertension must be equipped with the knowledge they need to cope with themselves, to be able to identify their illness, to analyze risk factors, and to recognize the need of long-term medication administration (Malik, Yoshida, Erkin, Salim, & Hamajima, 2016).
Patients’ knowledge and attitudes have an impact on the care of their illnesses, and increasing patient knowledge is beneficial. It has been shown to improve adherence to therapy in illnesses such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia.

The information and attitude of the patients may have an influence on their condition, blood pressure management, morbidity rate, and mortality rate, among other things (Jimoh et al., 2017). Aside from that, knowledge is an important factor of behavior change and healthy lifestyle behaviors in the context of high blood pressure. Controlling hypertension requires consideration of a variety of social, economic, and environmental issues. Higher levels of information gained via health education and health promotion have a significant impact on lifestyle changes in the context of hypertension. As a result, individuals should choose behaviors or lifestyles that will help them maintain an optimum level of health (Zungu & Djumbe, 2019). Furthermore, it is thought that many individuals are unaware of the dangers of high blood pressure and how to prevent it. Inadequate understanding may result in severe patient concern and the incorrect use of medical care. If hypertension is allowed to go uncontrolled, particularly in rural areas where the majority of the population is illiterate, it will increase the incidence of stroke, heart failure, glaucoma, and renal failure, among other diseases.

Hypertensive disorder in pregnancy is a condition in which the pregnant woman presents an elevated blood pressure during pregnancy or puerperium as defined in 1986 by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) (Malik, Yoshida, Erkin, Salim, & Hamajima, 2016). Previous reports defined hypertension in pregnancy as a condition presented with a diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mmHg or a systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mmHg, or a rise in diastolic blood pressure of at least 15 mmHg or a rise of 30 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. In the obstetric condition, the Working Group recently defined hypertension in pregnancy as a condition in which, the diastolic blood pressure is at 90 mmHg or above, or a systolic blood pressure is at 140 mmHg or above. Moreover, WHO considers only an elevated value of diastolic blood pressure as a criterion for defining the disorder. The disorder complicates 4-10% of pregnancies(Malik, Yoshida, Erkin, Salim, & Hamajima, 2016). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the United Nations Organization recognize four categories of hypertension in pregnancy. These include chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, and super-imposed preeclampsia/eclampsia, a condition defined as chronic hypertension complicated by pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

High blood pressure during pregnancy can impact the body in different ways than it normally would. Mothers with high blood pressure during pregnancy are at a higher risk of complications before, during and after the birth. Not only is the mother’s health in danger, but the baby can be impacted by high blood pressure during pregnancy (Dawson 2018).

High blood pressure during pregnancy can affect the development of the placenta, causing the nutrient and oxygen supply to the baby to be limited. This can lead to an early delivery, low birth weight, placental separation (abruption) and other complications for the baby.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the prevalence of hypertension in a pregnant woman in Maiduguri.

Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the rate at which hypertension is prevalent in pregnant women.
  2. To examine if pregnant women have knowledge on the management of hypertension.
  3. To determine the factors that leads to hypertension in pregnant women.
  4. To examine the effects of hypertension in pregnancy.
  5. To proffer ways in which hypertension in pregnant women can be prevented.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the the rate at which hypertension is prevalent in pregnant women
  2. Do pregnant women have knowledge on the management of hypertension?
  3. What are the factors that leads to hypertension in pregnant women?
  4. What are the effects of hypertension in pregnancy?
  5. What are the ways in which hypertension in pregnant women can be prevented?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be significant to ministry of health as this will expose them to the need of creating awareness on hypertension and also training health care personnel on knowledge, practice and attitude of patients and how to treat and handle patients especially pregnant women with hypertension.

This study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the prevalence of hypertension in a pregnant woman in Maiduguri. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the rate at which hypertension is prevalent in pregnant women, examining if pregnant women have knowledge on the management of hypertension, determining the factors that leads to hypertension in pregnant women, examining the effects of hypertension in pregnancy and proffering ways in which hypertension in pregnant women can be prevented.

Selected pregnant women in Maiduguri in Borno State will serve as the respondents for the survey of this study.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Prevalence:

In epidemiology, prevalence is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition at a specific time.

Hypertension:

A condition in which the force of the blood against the artery walls is too high. Usually hypertension is defined as blood pressure above 140/90, and is considered severe if the pressure is above 180/120.

High blood pressure often has no symptoms. Over time, if untreated, it can cause health conditions, such as heart disease and stroke.

Eating a healthier diet with less salt, exercising regularly and taking medication can help lower blood pressure.

Pregnant Women:

Pregnant woman means a woman determined to have one or more embryos or fetuses in utero.


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the incidence of hypertension in pregnancy among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the incidence of hypertension in pregnancy among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. The study is was specifically set to determine the rate at which hypertension is prevalent in pregnant women; examine if pregnant women have knowledge on the management of hypertension; determine the factors that leads to hypertension in pregnant women; examine the effects of hypertension in pregnancy; and proffer ways in which hypertension in pregnant women can be prevented.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are mothers and pregnant women in Maiduguri.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The rate at which hypertension is prevalent in pregnant women is very high.
  2. Pregnant women have knowledge on the management of hypertension.
  3. The factors that leads to hypertension in pregnant women include; obesity, a family history of hypertension, alcohol intake, heart failure, stroke and left ventricular hypertrophy and smoking.
  4. The effects of hypertension in pregnancy include; decreased blood flow to the placenta, low birth weight, premature birth, and Pre-eclampsia.
  5. The ways in which hypertension in pregnant women can be prevented are the use of salt as needed for taste, drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day, increasing the amount of protein you take in, and decrease the number of fried foods and junk food you eat, getting enough rest, exercising regularly, and elevating your feet several times during the day.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. Primary care physicians should effectively assume their role so asensure the early identification and management of hypertension during early antenatal care.
  2. Pregnant women should endeavour to seek for the services of a physician when having hypertension, and not rely on self medication and traditional treatments.
  3. The strategies outlined above on how hypertension can be managed should be effectively put into practice.

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