Knowledge On Cause And Prevention Of Anaemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Knowledge On Cause And Prevention Of Anaemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine knowledge on cause and prevention of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic with a special reference to mother and child hospital Akure, Ondo state. Specifically, the study examined the causes of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. The study also evaluate if pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia. The study further find out the effect of anaemia on pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. Lastly, the study evaluate the preventive measures pregnant women can adhere to so as not to contract anaemia. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 30 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that the causes of anaemia among pregnant women are iron deficiency, folate deficiency anemia,vitamin B12 deficiencies and infectious diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and parasitic infections. Also, pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia. Furthermore, some of the effect of anaemia among pregnant women are increase in the risk of premature birth, low birth weight baby ,postpartum depression, and rapid or irregular heartbeat. Lastly, some of the ways pregnant women can prevent anaemia is to eat iron-rich foods such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs, dried beans and fortified grains, eat foods high in folic acid, such as dried beans, dark green leafy vegetables, wheat germ and orange juice,eat foods high in vitamin C, such as citrus fruits and fresh, raw vegetables and take your prenatal multivitamin and mineral pill which contains extra folate. The study thereby recommend that Public enlightenment campaigns should be embarked upon to sensitize the public on what anaemia is, its causes, risk factors and complications. Also, health education and promotion, especially to encourage all pregnant women to book early for antenatal care and to take appropriate intervention measures. Information, Education and Communication (IEC) efforts should be directed towards increasing levels of awareness and commitment at all levels. Furthermore,strategies should be put in place to increase awareness on anaemia. These should include dissemination of information via antenatal and under-five clinics, public radio, and community development meetings conducted by extension workers. More so, education of the girl-child should be made compulsory to avoid teenage and unplanned pregnancy. This can also help in delaying first pregnancy. Lastly,distribution of iron tablets in communities targeted at adolescent girls and women after marriage and before conception, as well as in the inter-pregnancy period will prevent iron deficiency at the onset of a pregnancy.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size determination
  • 3.5 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of data collection
  • 3.8 Method of data analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the study
  • 3.11 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Anaemia describes a situation in which there is a reduction of haemoglobin concentration in the blood of pregnant women to a level below 11g/dl. Anaemia is one of the most common nutritional deficiency diseases observed globally and affects more than a quarter of the world’s population (1). Globally, anaemia affects 1.62 billion people (25%), among which 56 million are pregnant women (4 and1). It is estimated that 41.8% of pregnant women worldwide are anaemic. At least half of this anaemia burden is assumed to be due to iron deficiency. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional disorder in the world affecting 2 billion people worldwide with pregnant women particularly at risk (1). In developing countries, the prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy is 60.0% and about 7.0% of the women are severely anaemic (4). In Africa 57.1% of pregnant women are anaemic (d6). Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, with prevalence of anaemia estimated to be 17.2 million among pregnant women. This constitutes to approximately 30% of total global cases (1). In Nigeria the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women is 55.1% and among non-pregnant women is 46.4% . Anaemia during pregnancy is considered severe when haemoglobin concentration is less than 7.0 g/dl, moderate when the haemoglobin concentration is 7.0 to 9.9 g/dl, and mild when haemoglobin concentration is 10.0 to 10.9 g/dl (5,7, and 8). When the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women is 40.0% or more, it is considered as a severe public health problem (10).

Anaemia during pregnancy has a variety of causes and contributing factors. Iron deficiency is the cause of 75% of anaemia cases during pregnancy (9). Infectious diseases such as malaria, helminthes infestations and HIV are implicated with high prevalence of anaemia in sub-Saharan Africa (11). Loss of appetite and excessive vomiting in pregnancy and heavy menstrual flow before pregnancy are also documented causes of anaemia during pregnancy (13). Socio-economic conditions, abnormal demands like multiple pregnancies, teenage pregnancies, maternal illiteracy, unemployment/underemployment, short pregnancy intervals, age of gestation, primigravida and multigravida (15), smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, are the main contributing factors of anaemia during pregnancy (12).

Anaemia during pregnancy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and infants in developing countries. In 2013, an estimated 289,000 women died worldwide. Developing countries account for 99% (286 000) of the global maternal deaths with sub- Saharan Africa region alone accounting for 62% (179 000). About 800 women a day are still dying from complications in pregnancy and childbirth globally. Anaemia contributes to 20% of all maternal deaths. Anaemia in pregnancy causes low birth weight (14), fetal impairment and infant deaths . Iron deficiency anaemia affects the development of the nation by decreasing the cognitive and motor development of children and productivity of adults (16). Deficiency of folic acid during pregnancy can result in developing neural tube defect that develops in embryos during the first few weeks of pregnancy leading to malformations of the spine, skull, and brain (17).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women is 55.1%. If the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women is 40.0% or more, it is considered as a severe public health problem (20). Anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and increases the risks of foetal, neonatal and overall infant mortality. In 2013, an estimated 289,000 women died worldwide. Developing countries account for 99% (286 000) of the global maternal deaths with sub- Saharan Africa region alone accounting for 62% (179 000). About 800 women a day are still dying from complications in pregnancy and childbirth globally (18). Anaemia during pregnancy contributes to 20% of all maternal deaths .According to the KDHS 2008-09, maternal deaths increased from 414/100,000 in 2003 to 488/100,000 in 2008-09 far from meeting MDG target goals for maternal mortality. From this information it can be estimated that the high prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Nigeria is considered to be the main factor for maternal death(1).

Anaemia during pregnancy is also a major risk factor for low birth weight, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction (19). Deficiency in folic acid during pregnancy can result in serious neural tube defect, heart defects and cleft lips (Wilcox et al., 2007), limb defects, and urinary tract anomalies.

Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Nigeria are routinely put on iron supplementation throughout their pregnancy. However, the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women is still high. Moreover the available data concerning prevalence and specific ethologic factors of anaemia during pregnancy in Nigeria are limited.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is the knowledge on cause and prevention of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, the specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To examine the causes of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic.
  2. To evaluate if pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia.
  3. To find out the effect of anaemia on pregnant women attending antenatal clinic.
  4. To evaluate the preventive measures pregnant women can adhere to so as not to contract anaemia.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the causes of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic?
  2. Do pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia?
  3. What are the the effect of anaemia on pregnant women attending antenatal clinic?
  4. What are the preventive measures pregnant women can adhere to so as not to contract anaemia?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have no knowledge on the prevention of anaemia.
  • H1: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study examines knowledge on cause and prevention of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. Hence the study will be significant in the following ways

Government:

This study will be significant to the government as it will see the need to invest more in the health sector, especially in the reduction of child mortality rate.

Academia:

This study will be of significance to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on knowledge on cause and prevention of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will examine the causes of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. The study will also evaluate if pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia. The study will further find out the effect of anaemia on pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. Lastly, the study will evaluate the preventive measures pregnant women can adhere to so as not to contract anaemia. Hence this study will be delimited to mother and child hospital Akure, Ondo state.


1.8 limitation of the Study

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Knowledge:

Facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject

Prevention:

The action of stopping something from happening or arising

Anaemia:

A condition in which there is a deficiency of red cells or of haemoglobin in the blood, resulting in pallor and weariness

Antenatal Clinic:

A clinic that women attend when they are pregnant so that the medical staff can check that they and the baby are healthy


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the knowledge on cause and prevention of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic using mother and child hospital Akure, Ondo state as a case study.The study specifically was aimed at highlighting examine the causes of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, evaluate if pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia, find out the effect of anaemia on pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, and evaluate the preventive measures pregnant women can adhere to so as not to contract anaemia. A total of 30 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from nurses of the immunization department.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. The causes of anaemia among pregnant women are iron deficiency, folate deficiency anemia, vitamin B12 deficiencies and infectious diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV and parasitic infections.
  2. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic have a knowledge on the prevention of anaemia.
  3. Some of the effect of anaemia among pregnant women are Increase in the risk of premature birth, low birth weight baby and postpartum depression, and rapid or irregular heartbeat.
  4. Some of the ways pregnant women can prevent anaemia is to eat iron-rich foods such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs, dried beans and fortified grains, eat foods high in folic acid, such as dried beans, dark green leafy vegetables, wheat germ and orange juice,eat foods high in vitamin C, such as citrus fruits and fresh, raw vegetables and take your prenatal multivitamin and mineral pill which contains extra folate

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Public enlightenment campaigns should be embarked upon to sensitize the public on what anaemia is, its causes, risk factors and complications.
  2. Health education and promotion, especially to encourage all pregnant women to book early for antenatal care and to take appropriate intervention measures. Information, Education and Communication (IEC) efforts should be directed towards increasing levels of awareness and commitment at all levels.
  3. Strategies should be put in place to increase awareness on anaemia. These should include dissemination of information via antenatal and under-five clinics, public radio, and community development meetings conducted by extension workers.
  4. Education of the girl-child should be made compulsory to avoid teenage and unplanned pregnancy. This can also help in delaying first pregnancy.
  5. Distribution of iron tablets in communities targeted at adolescent girls and women after marriage and before conception, as well as in the inter-pregnancy period will prevent iron deficiency at the onset of a pregnancy

Knowledge On Cause And Prevention Of Anaemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Knowledge On Cause And Prevention Of Anaemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Knowledge On Cause And Prevention Of Anaemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Knowledge On Cause And Prevention Of Anaemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


Frequently Asked Questions


Do mothers have adequate knowledge about anemia prevention during pregnancy?

The majority of mothers had not adequate knowledge and poor practice regarding prevention of anemia during pregnancy, according to a descriptive and cross-sectional study carried out. 

What is the prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy?

If the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women is 40.0% or more, it is considered as a severe public health problem (McLean et al., 2008). Anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and increases the risks of foetal, neonatal and overall infant mortality (Akhtar and Hassan, 2012).

Do pregnant women at Lagos University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria know about anemia?

This study assessed the level of awareness and prevention of anemia among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 182 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at LUTH in Lagos, Nigeria.

What are the major causes of anemia in pregnancy?

The major causes of anemia in pregnancy in developing countries are nutritional deficiencies, parasitic infestations, HIV infection, hemorrhage, and some chronic medical disorders such as renal and hepatic diseases. Furthermore, infectious diseases have been reported to cause a high prevalence of anemia in sub-Saharan Africa.  

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.