Evaluation Of Disciplinary Process And Implication For Secondary School Administration
This research is on the “Evaluation of Disciplinary Process and Implication for Secondary School Administration” with reference to Ojo Local Educational District of Lagos State. It employed descriptive research design. Instruments were questionnaires, interview guides and observation check list. Five schools were selected. Data was collected and analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Findings shows that best performing school has suitable school rules and regulation, use and implement different mechanism, apply fair and consistence punishment, also had suitable rules and regulations contrary to least performing schools which had unsuitable rules and regulation, do not well use and implement different mechanisms, apply unfair and inconsistence punishment and had written rules which had no supervision.
Conclusion, students should be aware of school rules and regulation, fair, consistence punishment, same mechanisms to communicate, motivation, recruitment and selection procedure to teachers and students. Recommendation there should be meeting between schools to share experiences on discipline-related matters vis-à-vis academic performance. Government should motivate teachers in least performing schools. Parents-teachers relationship should be established. Further research can be carried out focusing on the role of school discipline on students’ academic performance in the counties or the whole country for comparative analysis.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Background to the Study
- 1.3 Statement of the Problem
- 1.4 General Objectives of the Study
- 1.5 Specific Objectives of the Study
- 1.6 Research Questions
- 1.7 Significance of the Study
- 1.8 Delimitation and Limitations of the Study
- 2.2 Empirical Review 2.3 Theoretical Framework
- 2.4 The Conceptual Framework
- 2.5 Effect of Suitability of Set Rules and Regulation on Students’ Academic Performance: A literature Survey
- 2.5.4 Effect of Management of Rules and Regulation on Students’ Academic Performance
- 2.5.5 Effect of Punishment Management on Students’ Academic Performance
- 2.6 Literature Gap
- 2.7 Chapter Summary
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Description of the Study Area
- 3.3 Research Approach
- 3.3.1 Research Design
- 3.4 Focus Population
- 3.5 Sample Population
- 3.6 Data Collection Methods
- 3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instruments
- 3.8 Research Procedure 3.9 Ethical Considerations
- 3.10 Chapter Summary
4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis And Discussion
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Students Characteristics
- 4.3 Influence of Suitability of Set Rules and Regulations on Students’ Academic Performance in Best and Least Performing Schools
- 4.4 Influence of Mechanisms in Place That Ensure Students Abide To Prescribe Rules and Regulation
- 4.5 Influence of Students Punishment Management On Students’ Academic Performance
- 4.6 Influence of Administration of School Rules and Regulation on Students’ Academic Performance
- 4.7 Chapter Summary
5.0 Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of the Study
- 5.3 Summary of the Major Findings
- 5.4 Conclusions
- 5.5 Recommendations
This chapter presents the background to the study, statement of the research problem, objectives of the study, research questions, and significance of the study.
1.2 Background to the Study
Child discipline is as old as the existence of mankind. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve transgressed Gods law and disciplinary action was taken against them. Thereafter discipline became an integral part of human growth and development, hence the proverb “spare the rod and spoil the child”. In fact the Bible construes the spearing of the rod as an open act of child neglect and hate, parents therefore are expected to correct or discipline their children. This means that discipline deals with good behaviour and every society wants its children to get proper socialization.
In the recent past there has been an increase in public attention to the problems of discipline in the country in general and in the secondary school system in particular. It is quite obvious that this disgraceful and unfortunate incident to happen pretty often nowadays in our secondary schools of learning for instance, a principal of a secondary school could be chased out of his own house with sticks, stones and cutlasses by his own student. This sounds pathetic as it is ridiculous. Rules and regulations are no longer obeyed in our secondary schools. It therefore follows that the students do not ant to obey their teachers and principal and consequently take laws into their hands. Discipline involves self-control, restraints respect for self and respect for others. The disciplined person is guided in his behaviour, moral and social principles and does what is right and good because he believes that such behaviour is better than actions which ban harm other people.
Effective discipline helps in the achievement of goals, expectation and expectation and responsibility in students (Dunham, 1984:66).Good discipline creates a good image of the school and prepares learners for the future. Disruptive behavior amongst learners eliminated if there is good discipline at school. The implementation of effective discipline at school is a key for the learner in his journey to adulthood. By definition discipline refers to the ability to carry out reasonable instructions or orders to reach appropriate standards of behaviors. It is understood to be that abstract quality in a human being which is associated with and manifested by a person’s ability to do things well at the right time, in the right circumstance, without or with minimum supervision (Ngonyani, 1973:15).
Various studies have been conducted on issues pertaining to schools’ academic performance, such as those by Malekela (2000:61), Galabawa (2000:100) and Mosha (2000:4).
They have pointed out some factors that lead to varying levels of performance in schools, including availability of teachers, availability of teaching and learning materials and languagecommunication. Omari (1995) talks about school discipline as one among aspects that influence performance in schools. School discipline is an essential element in any educational institution if the students are to benefit from the opportunities offered to them. Omari (1995:38) argues that it is difficult to maintain order and discipline in schools where teachers have no space to sit, prepare and mark students’ work. In other words, Omari (1995) supports the above scholars that availability of teaching and learning materials has an impact on school discipline.
Indiscipline in schools, and consequently, school strikes, destroy the teaching- learning environment. Occasionally there are protests, riots and violence and sometimes the police have to come in to intervene to protect school property. Some schools become virtual prisons as they construct huge walls and expensive fences to protect good students, teachers and property against undisciplined students. Ohsako (1997:7) argues that violence is a sensitive issue that provokes anxiety, arouses emotions and has negative impact on school performance.
Despite the rules endorsed by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training but they are not followed by many of the students and their teachers in some government andprivate schools, who misbehave wherever they are outside the school environment. As Omari(1995:25) observes, the most important thing is not so much to have written rules pinned inthe office of the head teacher or discipline master as to have rules actually implemented. School rules and regulations should facilitate administrative work, should focus on the creation of a good atmosphere for teaching and learning.
For several years now there have been concerns by various people and groups regarding thedeterioration of the quality of education in secondary schools. Schools vary in categories some school have maintained standard other school standard decline .It’s time to look the circumstances surrounding differential performance among them; as well as the varying levels of discipline associated with different school categories.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
This study sought to investigate the effect disciplinary procedures in Ojo secondary school administration. It is obvious that students are priceless assets and most essential elements in education. It is absolutely necessary to direct students to exhibit acceptable attitude and behaviour within and outside the school. In an attempt to achieve an organized and peaceful school environment and maintain law and order, school managements specifies rules and regulations to guide the activities of members of the educational organization. In Ojo where discipline is a serious problem, for example, where students bully others. Parents of these students, transfers their children to ‘better’ schools outside the district, and because according to Rigdy (2000) the well behaved usually perform well so their transfer can affect the overall performance of that school. Some troublesome students sometimes make teachers react emotionally to the extent of using punishment which according to McManus (1995) does not discourage mis-behaviour but rather reinforces the students view of adult as treacherous”.
1.4 General Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study was to examine the evaluation of disciplinary process and implication for secondary school administration with reference to Ojo Local Educational District of Lagos State.
1.5 Specific Objectives of the Study
- To examine the suitability of set rules and regulations in best and least performing schools.
- To examine the mechanisms in place that ensures that students’ abides to prescribed rules and regulations.
- To examine how the students punishment management influence academic performance.
- To investigate how the administration of school rules and regulation contribute students’ academic performance.
1.6 Research Questions
- To what extent set rules and regulations in best performing and least performing schools are suitable?
- Do mechanisms in place ensure that students’ abides to prescribed rules and regulations?
- To what extent students’ punishment management influence academic performance?
- How does administration of school rules and regulations affect students’ academic performance?
1.7 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that at the end of this study the findings will: Help the secondary school administrators know on how best to administer disciplinary strategies on students. Help the students to be more committed to their academic work, happy and useful to the society. Help parents to know that a child is brought into this world so that the society may create or mould him/her accordingly to fit well into the existing way of life. Help the secondary school administrators evaluate the proposed rule necessary for the orderly and effective operation of the school. Serve as a reference material for future and today’s researchers who may be interested in a similar study.
1.8 Delimitation and Limitations of the Study
- Some respondents did not return the questionnaire in time and others did not fill them. The researcher had to make follow up until got enough data for analysis.
- Some head of school did not allow researcher to do research in their schools. They end up give promises for researcher to come next time that they are busy with other school issues. To tackle this researcher had to look for other school to do the research.
- Financial constraints and time limit. To handle this researcher had to work on time and use money wisely.
5.0 Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
The preceding four chapters dealt with several aspects pertaining to the research problem. This chapter presents a summary of the study, the major findings, conclusions and pertinent recommendations with the respect to the main findings of the study.
5.2 Summary of the Study
This study investigated the evaluation of disciplinary process and implication for secondary school administration. Based on the general objective of the study, four objectives were formulated to guide data collection and analysis. These examined the suitability of set rules and regulations in best and least performing schools, the mechanisms in place that ensures that students’ abides to prescribe rules and regulations, how the students’ punishment management influence academic performance and investigated how the administration of school rules and regulation contribute students’ academic performance.
The research was conducted in Ojo Local Educational district in Lagos state. The study employed principally a qualitative research approach applying a descriptive study design, with quantification of cases as was necessary. Data were obtained through documentary review, interview, questionnaire and observation methods.
The quantitative data were processed with the help of excel software program and were summarized into tables of frequencies and percentages, while qualitative data were subjected to content analysis and relevant information was extracted.
The findings were expected to generate useful information that might result into new knowledge and stimulate better strategies for improving discipline and academic performance in schools.
5.3 Summary of the Major Findings
The following were the major findings of the study:
5.3.1 On Suitability of Set School Rules and Regulations
The study showed that most of the set school rules and regulations used in best performing schools were suitable in managing school discipline contrary to least performing schools where were well written but not well executed as a result many discipline problems were observed.
In least performing secondary schools the reasons and factors behind violating of school rules and regulations were associated with shortage of teachers and teaching learning materials, overcrowded classes, poor housing, delayed services such as of teacher salary payment, and the absence of libraries and laboratories. Other factors like leadership style were bureaucracy in decision making and lack of consistency in decision implementation. These factors, at the time of study, were either absent or minimal in most best performing secondary schools.
5.3.2 On Mechanisms in Place That Ensures That Students’ Abides To Prescribed Rules and Regulations
Time management, motivation to teachers such as provision of housing, better salaries, free transport allowance, orientation course, discipline committee, punishment and consistent assessment criteria were part of the mechanisms used by the management in best performing secondary schools students’ abides to prescribe rules and regulations. Also continual and critical assessment of conduct and academic progress, school-based criteria and rigorous procedures that touch on background factors such as on academic, moral, social and personality traits, interest, work habits and competencies, including language competency in the course of recruiting teachers and selecting students.
Some of the mechanisms used by management, at the time of study, were either absent or minimal in least performing secondary schools. Regarding academic progress least performing schools maintained the ‘right of education for everyone’ policy without serious recourse to student background factors as well as employing teachers who had finished a teaching program, no regardless of specific academic or professional qualification or ability, moral conduct, interest in teaching, experience or commitment to the work.
5.3.3 On the Influence of Students’ Punishment Management on Academic Performance
The study findings revealed that punishment play significant roles in enhancing students’ academic performance by making sure that students and teachers follow school rules and regulations. In best performing school punishment was fair and it was consistence applied .One the other hand in least performing schools most of the time punishment was unfair and inconsistence. The adoption further revealed that when rule and regulation is emphasized, it in a long run prescribes the standard of behaviour expected of students and teachers.
5.3.4 On the Influence of Administration of School Rules and Regulation on Students’ Academic Performance
The study revealed that in best performing school managers were strict to ensure all agreed rules and regulations are followed properly this was due to less bureaucratic procedures in reaching and implementing decisions contrary to least performing schools were managers were more not strict to ensure all agreement are followed properly. This was due a lot of bureaucracy during implementation of decision made.
On the basis of the findings recounted above, a number of conclusions can be drawn.
- There are as many reasons and factors behind violating school rules and regulations as there are various types of discipline-related problems in the studied schools. However, the type and range of these problems are more prevalent in least performing secondary schools, with a greater negative impact on school discipline and academic performance, than in best performing secondary schools.
- The kind of school rules and their formulation processes, communication strategies and forms of punishment execution seem to exert differential impact on the level of discipline and learning environment in the two categories of school.
- There are as many mechanisms to communicate school rules and regulations to students and teachers as there are various types of punishment meted upon breaking these school rules. While best performing secondary schools are characterized more by use of handbooks of school rules, frequent student-headof-school meetings and students’ interactions, followed by ultimate use of penal manual work and instant dismissal, least performing public schools are rather limited in this respect, resorting to either caning or simply ignoring student misdeeds. Student suspension or dismissal as a last resort is more difficult and more bureaucratic in management decision making.
- Better remuneration packages for staff, school based orientation sessions and explicit and transparent assessment criteria, as well as early rigorous recruitment and selection procedures for teachers and students, as practiced in best performing secondary schools, seem to associate more with a contented and disciplined academic environment than without these elements. Absence of these, as in least performing secondary schools, tends to invoke an environment of defiance and discontent.
On the basis of the research findings and conclusions drawn in the preceding sections, the following recommendations are made:
5.5.1 Recommendations for Practical Action
- A system should be planned by head of schools whereby members from best performing secondary schools have an opportunity to meet frequently with least performing secondary school community members to share experiences on discipline-related matters vis-à-vis academic performance. Their mutual understanding can be expected to help both sides to look into and act upon the variables that weaken their sides.
- The government, in collaboration with community local authorities, should exert more effort aimed at motivating teachers in least performing schools, through adequate and timely salary payments, improved conditions of service, availability of teaching-learning materials and improved school infrastructure. This gesture can only raise teachers’ self-esteem and the status of the teaching profession, leading to a reduction in the malpractices that negatively impact on school discipline and academic performance.
- Parents and teachers are the most powerful influence on the child’s life experiences, especially on educational outcomes. There should be parent -teacher relations so as to control indiscipline among students in school. To this effect, parent-teacher associations (PTAs) should be established by head of schools as a matter of policy for all schools, where some parents could be elected as “school representatives” within the community.
- Since students are targeted beneficiaries of school rules and academic interventions, there is a need for management of both categories of schools to devise ways of involving the students more in matters relating to formulation and implementation of school rules and regulations for an effective non-oppressive school discipline.
5.5.2 Recommendation for Further Studies
Research focus on the role of school discipline on students’ academic performance should be conducted in other areas of counties or the whole country for comparative analysis.
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