Evaluating The Effect Of Administrative Planning Processes On Teaching And Learning Outcome In Selected Faculties In University Of Ilorin
This research work investigated evaluating the effect of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes outcome in selected faculties in university of Ilorin. The research was conducted using the descriptive survey research design. The total population of the study was 690 made up of 187 Deans, 315 Quality Assurance Officers, and 188 Department of Policy Implementation Officials. A sample of67 Deans, 113 QAO’s and 68 DPI officials were selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. Forty item self- structured questionnaire tagged „‟Influence of Administrative planning processes on Teaching and learning outcomes Questionnaire‟‟ (IMESTLQ) was used as instrument for collection of data using Likert rating scale of Strongly Agreed(SA), Agreed(A), Undecided (U), Disagreed (D), and Strongly Disagreed (SD). The instrument was validated by the supervisors in the Department and the final draft copy was pilot-tested. The result of r=0.84 revealed it was reliable. The mean scores, percentages and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the hypotheses were tested using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the findings led to retention of all the hypotheses. The study revealed that administrative planning processes by the Deans, QAO’s and DPI officials have great influence on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin. This is as a result of regular quality assurance exercise. Recommendations made include that, Quality Assurance Officers, Department of Policy Implementation and Deans of Schools should intensify efforts on continuous appraisal of school system. Furthermore, Continuous Assessment of school records by quality assurance officers, DPI and Deans, would enhance teaching and learning outcomes in University of Ilorin. As such these activities should be emphasised in the course of school supervision, inspection and monitoring, Assessment of lesson plans and notes should be prime activities of Quality Assurance Officer, DPI and Deans. It should be featured in their instructional supervision process, and Continuous assessment records should feature prominently in the instructional supervision process of Quality Assurance Officers, DPI and Deans of schools. Suggestions for further studies were made for the actualisation of Nigerian educational system.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Planning in the context of education entails the process of setting objectives and determining the means to achieving the objectives. It entails deciding in advance what to be taught how, to teach, when to teach, who is be taught, and the evaluation of recipient.
Planning is the beginning of teaching and learning process, before a teacher goes to the class to deliver any lesson, he plans such lessons while education administrators make policy and plan the curriculum for the school to implement them.
Through planning for a lesson makes the teaching-learning encounter valuable and productive impact. Conversely, no planning leads to a wasteful and unproductive lesson. The motion pervades education at all levels and in all subject areas (Egbe, 2008).
There appears to be widespread agreement not only on the value of planning, but also on the substance and format of plans. The plan that enlisted universal acceptance contains the purposes, experiences and their organization and evaluation.
If a lesson is to be effective, the teacher needs to make decision in these areas before the lesson. He needs to identify the objectives he intends to develop, the knowledge or subject-matter, objectives as well as the process and effective objectives. He needs to select and organize students learning experience that will develop the objective. He needs to make decision about activities to be used, materials to be gathered, amount of time to be spent, and other matters. Finally, he needs to decide what method or instrument to use to determine whether the teaching accomplished the objective of the lesson.
Education is a vital tool for national development which is only attainable through the school system. It produces the human capital that utilizes all other factors of production in order to yield desired output towards nation building. Teaching and learning outcomes is a process that can only be efficient when there is an effective mechanism for checks and balances, such as effective the administrative planning processes. Monitoring has to do with intermittent and careful watch and check on something over a period of time in order to see how it develops, so that one can make necessary changes. Evaluation, on the other hand, has to do with critical assessment of a planned programme so as to ascertain the level of attainment of set goals and objectives. It is a mechanism for providing feedback for students, lecturers and policy makers. Through evaluation, diagnosis is made of short falls in the programme so as to draw up corrective measures to improve on it. The administrative planning processes, therefore, is a veritable tool through which the school system can be highly improved. It is through this medium that school supervisors and inspectors otherwise known as quality assurance officers, ensure that classroom instruction are improved because lecturers are made to be more alive towards their responsibilities. Thus, enhancing on their competencies and make them more accountable. The essence of monitoring and supervision is basically to ensure day to day effective implementation of curriculum in our schools. The administrative planning processes adopts varying strategies in order to achieve the objectives it is purported to achieve, amongst which are: regular appraisal of the school system through quality assurance inspection, school records assessment, ensuring that lesson notes and plans are scrutinised before lesson delivery, use of continuous assessment for students to ascertain their level of performance, annual performance assessment of lecturers as a yardstick for promotion from one grade level to another.
The the administrative planning processes and the DPI unit of the FCDA Education Secretariat perform same function as the former inspectorate division. However, despite efforts to correct anomalies with regards to the quality of teaching and learning outcomes in Ilorin schools, through the establishment of the administrative planning processes unit, much seemed to be desired. Performances of students in internal and external examinations are not very impressive and lecturers‟ productivity is dwindling. This calls for the need to try to correct the situation before it completely gets out of hand. This is what prompted this study.
Thus, the study on the Influence of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin in Ilorin‟ is an attempt to closely investigate how the administrative planning processes influences teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin in the Ilorin. This is with a view to provide information that would further enhance role performance of the administrative planning processes and subsequently facilitate effective teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the years, Nigeria has witnessed with pain and anguish, series of disheartening images emerging from its educational system. The students‟ educational performance has been on the declining plane (Olaofe, 2005). The second half of 1950s to the late 70s can be described as the golden age of Nigeria educational development (Ojo, 1996). The standard of education at all levels of the country’s educational system was relatively high. However, the same cannot be said today.
The changes seem to have started very gradually from 70s, worsened in the 80s and have now reached an alarming proportion. The number of candidates registering for WAEC/SSCE has increased geometrically while the number of such candidates who pass with 5 credits and above including Mathematics and English language has invariably declined (Inuwa, 2007).
Central Bank of Nigeria (1995) summarised the causes of these` marked decline in the educational performance to include shortage of qualified lecturers, inadequate financial and infrastructural facilities, deteriorating moral values in the society, including the government and the school misplaced priority as a result of inadequate the administrative planning processes of the system.
In the Ilorin there are various institutions charged with the the administrative planning processes of educational system. These include those officers in the Department of Policy Implementation (DPI), those in the Quality Assurance Unit and the Deans of faculties. A cross examination of those educational quality control shows that, they all have common
objectives: to inspect schools and their records such as lesson notes, curriculum content to ensure quality of teaching/ learning and promote better educational performance in our schools.
How has the efforts of these monitoring officers influenced the performance of the lecturers in Ilorin in terms of teaching/learning? Are the various school records such as lesson notes, diaries and curriculum assessment effectively monitored and appropriately kept?
This scenario has made many Nigerians particularly the stakeholders feel concerned about the state of the education system. It is against this background that the researcher ventured into conducting this study on the influence of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes in selected faculties in University of Ilorin. This is to enable those involved in the educational delivery services find the adequacy and other wise of the inspectors, school records, lesson notes/plans, continuous assessment and their influence on teaching and learning outcomes.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set to achieve the following objectives:
- To determine the influence of appraisal of school systems performance on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin of Ilorin;
- To examine the influence of school record assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in the University of Ilorin;
- To find out the influence of assessment of lesson plans and notes on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin; and
- To ascertain the influence of continuous assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher attempted to find answers to the following questions:
- In what ways does appraisal of school system influence teaching and learning outcomes in selected faculties in University of Ilorin?
- What are the influence of school records assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in selected faculties in University of Ilorin?
- To what extent does assessment of lesson plans and notes influence teaching and learning outcomes in selected faculties in University of Ilorin?
- How does continuous assessment influence teaching and learning outcomes in selected faculties in University of Ilorin?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were postulated and tested:
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Deans, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of appraisal of school system on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Deans, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of assessment of school records on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Deans, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of assessment of lesson plans/notes on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of Deans, Quality Assurance Officials and Department of Policy Implementation Officials on the influence of continuous assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in selected faculties in University of Ilorin.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is an attempt to examine the influence of the administrative planning processes in teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin in Ilorin. It will go a long way in providing information that will be utilized by an array of personalities such as officials of department of policy and implementation, quality assurance officers and Deans of departments. The study will provide information that will assist planners and administrators in the decision making process, particularly as it pertains to recruitment, posting of staff to take charge of the administrative planning processes in respective schools. The study will help them to see areas of lapses in relation to the administrative planning processes in the University of Ilorin. The study will provide feedback mechanism to officials of DPI and QAO on how they fare in their the administrative planning processes activities. It will provide the Deans with necessary information that will enable them fortify their position towards effective the administrative planning processes in their respective schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is on the influence of the administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin in Ilorin. It attempted to find out whether or not the administrative planning processes have influence on teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin of Ilorin. The study involved school administrators (Deans), Officers of Department of Policy and Implementation and Quality Assurance Officers of Ilorin.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Educational technology is the combined use of computer hardware, software, and educational theory and practice to facilitate learning
Learning outcomes are statements that describe the knowledge or skills students should acquire by the end of a particular assignment, class, course, or program, and help students understand why that knowledge and those skills will be useful to them.
This the process through which individual are charged to increase their action or performance either by internal or external factors.
This is used in the study to refers to students’ attitude to competition for excellent in their attitude toward participating in classroom activities and home work. It also used to students’ interest in learning.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
This research work on evaluating the effect of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes outcome in selected faculties in university of Ilorin. The objective of the study was to determine the influence of appraisal of school systems performance on teaching and learning outcomes, examine the influence of school record assessment on teaching and learning outcomes, find out the impact of assessment of lesson plans and notes on teaching and learning outcomes, and to ascertain the influence of assessment of continuous assessment on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorin. The issues raised from the objectives led to the formulation of research questions and corresponding hypotheses. Related literatures were reviewed. The research was conducted using the descriptive survey research design. Forty item self-structured questionnaire tagged Influence of Administrative planning processes on Teaching and learning outcomes Questionnaire was used as instrument for collection of data using likert rating scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), Undecided (U), Disagree (D), and Strongly Disagree (SD). The instrument was validated by my supervisors in the department, the final draft copy was pilot tested and the result revealed it was reliable. A total Population of 690 (187 Deans, 315 Quality Assurance Officers, and 188 Department of Policy Implementation Officials). 67 Deans, 113 QAO’s and 68 DPI officials were selected using simple random sampling technique. The result of the findings led to retention of all the hypotheses. The study revealed that administrative planning processes by the Deans, QAO’s and DPI officials has great influence on teaching and learning outcomes in Selected faculties in University of Ilorina.
In this research titled evaluating the effect of administrative planning processes on teaching and learning outcomes outcome in selected faculties in university of Ilorin, the following conclusions were drawn.
The research revealed that, appraisal of school systems performance enhance high standard of educational system in the University of Ilorin. The decline in academic achievement of students is associated to poor monitoring of lecturers in terms of lesson planning and delivery. Regular monitoring provides bases for judging the impact of input that has been fed into the system. It involves analysing and acting on students‟ progress and outcome data, monitoring enhances quality control and standardization of educational objectives (curriculum implementation), while on the other hand, evaluation is an exercise that seeks to provide credible and useful information to answer specific question to guide decision making by staff, managers and policy makers. It may assess relevance efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability.
Effective teaching requires proper planning which is dependent on a good lesson plan as supported by Onwurah (1999) who opined that, lesson notes serve as a reminder to the lecturer of what he is going to teach and how he intends to teach it. For instances if the lecturer of social studies mentioned above does not specify in his lesson note that he will use a board game to arouse his pupils interest, he might get carried away and forget to do this. The form of lesson notes encourages logical development and preparation. Because lesson notes follow a step – wise fashion, it’s easy for a lecturer to identify what should be discussed before the other. For instance, the child will be taught how to do addition by counting before being introduced to the addition sign „‟+‟‟. Lesson notes help to make a lecturer more
confident. This is particularly so for beginning lecturers who will now be guided by the notes instead of relying on the head. Lesson notes direct the attention of the lecturer to methods and strategies for teaching. Because the lecturer lists the possible methods, techniques and strategies he will use in teaching, chances of his groping in the dark or pausing to think of method are reduced to a minimum.
Records of schools are not properly kept. School records are very vital in the smooth operation of the school which is in consonance with opinion of Olagboye (2004) who see school records as books, documents, diskettes and files in which are embodied information on what goes on in school (e.g. social, academic and non-academic activities, important events etc), the school plant as well as other relevant information which enhances the growth and development of the school. Hence, Deans must keep records of information about their schools as all records are very useful.
The records must be complete and be made available when the need arises. Records which are not regularly kept will be incomplete and misleading. Badly kept records can hinder the progress of the school. The Deans must see that school records are devoid of exaggerated reports or untrue statements. School records that contain untrue statements are worthless and show the type of personality the keeper of such records has. In a nutshell, properly kept and up to date records (both statutory and non-statutory) are for planning and budgeting purpose, serve as indices for assessing school performance, provides useful information not only for members of the school community but also for members of the public, employers of labours, researchers and government, it save the school from any un necessary embarrassment as well legal tussles, it aids administrative decision making and efficiency in the school, and it enable the lecturer know something about his pupils and through this, be in a better position to assist him academically, morally, socially et cetera. In addition to being able to predict his behaviour and provide needed information to whoever may need it.
Continuous assessment is a tool that enhances effective teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin because of its numerous advantages which included that, it is guidance oriented. This is in line with the assertion of USAID (2003) that, Continuous assessment is a powerful diagnostic tool that enables pupils to understand the areas in which they are having difficulty and to concentrate their efforts in those areas. It also allows lecturers to monitor the impact of their lessons on pupil understanding. Lecturers can modify their pedagogical strategies to include the construction of remediation activities for pupils who are not working at the expected grade level and the creation of enrichment activities for pupils who are working at or above the expected grade level. Hence, the continuous assessment process supports a cycle of self-evaluation and pupil-specific activities by both pupils and lecturers.
Since it will involve data gathering over a long period of time, it will yield more accurate data reaching the lecturers early enough to modify instruction. This could play a vital role in diagnosing and remediating areas of learners‟ weaknesses. It places lecturers at the centre of all performance-assessment activities. It encourages more lecturer participation in the overall assessment or grading of his/her learners. Lecturers must be given opportunities to select and review assessments so that they become involved and knowledgeable in the process. Through this approach, lecturers would be able to integrate assessment and assessment results into instructional practice. Lecturers will be expected to incorporate assessment into the larger learning framework and possibly to provide evidence regarding how assessment information is used to inform and guide instruction for individual learners.
Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations have been proffered for effective Administrative planning processes on Teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin in Ilorin, Nigeria and even other educational sectors of the nation at all levels.
- Quality Assurance Officers, Department of Policy Implementation and Deans of schools should intensify on continues appraisal of schools system through regular supervision of school activities and prompt submission of their reports to appropriate authority.
- There should be frequent assessment of school records by Quality Assurance Officers, DPI and Deans for quality teaching and learning outcomes in the University of Ilorin of Ilorin through school supervision, inspection and monitoring.
- The lecturers should prepare lesson plans and schemes of work and the head of departments should ensure that these professional documents are prepared and used for effective teaching and learning outcomes to take place in the University of Ilorin of Ilorin.
- Continuous assessment records should feature prominently in the instructional supervision process of Quality Assurance Officers, DPI and Dean of schools, through checking of lecturer’s weekly/termly records for students.
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