An Epidemiology Survey For Sctristosomiasis Among Pupils In Amagunze Community In Nkanu Local Government Area In Enugu

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

An Epidemiology Survey For Sctristosomiasis Among Pupils In Amagunze Community In Nkanu Local Government Area In Enugu


Abstract


The survey of urinary sehistomiass in Ishele in Amagunze, Nkanu East local Government was carried out using two methods of diagnosis i.e combination of questionnaire on clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory microscopy using primary school children in the area as test samples. A total of fifty samples were randomly collected reveals the prevalence of urinary Sdristomisis is 62 %. The risk factor attributed was found to cotain the sried of the type Bulinus (physopsis) globusus and Bulinus fruncatus that are responsible because children play and swum in Afavu River. The sample were collected from pupils within the age of 6-12 years.


Chapter One


Introduction

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of urinary and intestinal tracts by schistosome. A specie which infect the urinary bladder is caused by schnstosome haematobuim widely found in Africa and was first discovered by bilharza in 1851 in Egyptian mummies and He also carried out an urogential tract autopsy. About 20million people are infected with schnstosome parasite, those who get heavy infection are especially or death. Billaries modify dictimery (1998) defined Schistosomiasis as infection disease of man caused by blood flukes of genus schnstosome. It is one of the most serious parasitic infection of man, affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia and west Indies.

Schistosomiasis presents a constant threat to as many as 600millons people as they perform daily activities related to water, such like swimming, washing and bathing ( Bayers 1984) this Schistosomiasis affect for different prpolation from as a result of human contact with infected water, they includes (a) occupational (b) recreational (c) domestic (d) socio- cultural (Ukoli 1984) The three main species of schnstosome responsible for human infection are schnistasoma japonicum. Four other species occurring much less commonly are interculum, S matter, S bovis and S meking

The blood flukes in schnstosome is a long narrow known as Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. schnstosome that livers in the urinary bladder of man is known as schisotosoma haematobium while that in the intestine is . schistosoms mansm, and also schistosnma japonicum,

Ramsay (1934) reported that male and female worms are separated individual but the female is smaller and is carried in a groove on the under surface of the male and lives in the vein of the host. The female lays eggsin the walls of the bladder and intestine causing inflammation and bleeding. The eggs are excreted with body wastes and find their way to water contaminated by several different water snail example bulinus which is the intermediate host of schrostome haematobium. Schistosomiasis is very wide spread and associated with poverty, poor housing and inadequate sanitary facilities and unsanitary human behavior.

TABLE 1

TIME SCALE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCHISTOSOME SPICES

 S. haematobuim S. Mansmi S interculum
Lease of life miraciduim16- 32 hrs + 5-6 hrs +16-32 hrs 5-6 hrs +16 – 32 hrs +

5-6 hrs +

Emergence of cerconnae after miraudial pens tratim of snail5-6 weeks4-5 weeks3 weeks
Lease of life cercansae1-3 days1-3 days1-3 days
Penetratim time of cercanae3-5 mins3-5 mins3-5 mins
Time taken for schstosonulae to reach lungs4-7 days4-7 days4-7 days
First appearance of egg, in urine or stool after infection54- 84 days25-28 days50- 80 days.

As compiled by ukoli (1984)

schistosoma has been found to be a disease rampart and highly prevalent in the revenuer areas, where man contact with infected water while performing their Agricultural activities. Ishiehy Amagunze using annual the river Afavu having an agricultural base with the people contact with the infected water and swampy soil, there is the tendency of the disease which manifest in the people with symptoms as haematuria tenderness of lower etc. It is prevalence in Armagunze increases as the people gets more into contact with the water bodies this makes water bodies unsafe for Agricultural recreational activities enchangers farm works and use of the water contact relation for the people have increased alarming due to the poor facilities and recreational features. hence, there is need to redetemine the level of Schistosomiasis in Ishelu Amagume, Nkanu local government


1.2 Aim and Objective

  1. To evaluate the epidermiology of Schistosomiasis among pupil of Ishielu Amagunze in Nkanu local government.
  2. To educate the pupils with respect to the disease on the mode of infection and identify ways of preventing and controlling the disease.

1.3 Statement of Problem

Amagunze has a number of slow moving streams and water bodies with high human contact. The exposed population is primary school pupils who swims, wash food clothes at long hours. It is expected that water intact diseases and schistomiasis will be highly prevalent in the community.


1.4 Hypothesis

  • H0 Prevalence of schristosmiasis is more in primary school children between ages 6-12 years who have highest water contact such as swimming food washing etc.
  • H1 Schistosomiasis is not present amoge pupils in Amagunze even though they have high water contact events.

1.5 Justification

Since all human activities required water such as drinking., bathing, washing of clothes and agricultural purpose etc. there is need for proper disposal of faces and urine to reduces the rates of infection of Schistosomiasis and pupils coming to the water should be screened before allowing to settle in the area.


Limitation

This work is limited to urine analysis and microscopy and limited to Ishielu Amagunze in Nkanu East local government where by primary school chosen by random sampling to represent the entire community. The children used one within water related activities and are the population at risk,

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Conclusion and Recommendation


Since the concept of this study aims moistly at the confirmation of the senstosomasis prevalence in Ishielu in Amagunze community. In conclusion the Epideniology of schistosoma haematobium in Ishielu in Amagunze community indicates that river Atavu should not be harnessed as a recreational resort, unless the infected water is treated to confined the level of schistosoma haematobium in the community.

A good sewagel sanitary measures are therefore required to be adopted in the community so as to reduce the prevalence and intensity of infection to a level which no longer constitutes a disease problem.

These could be achieved if the following are carried out.

  1. Providing safe water supplies in villages to reduces as much as possible contact with infected water.
  2. Proper sewage disposal to avoid infecting the water with shristosoma eggs
  3. Providing safe recreational bathing sites especially for children
  4. Avoiding the use of untreated faces as fertilizer.
  5. Treat with molluscdes like copper selphate Bayer 73 to cause bionomics.
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