Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude Of People Regarding Covid-19 Vaccine In Iwaya District In Lagos State

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Assessment Of Knowledge And Attitude Of People Regarding Covid-19 Vaccine In Iwaya District In Lagos State


Abstract


This study investigated the assessment of knowledge and attitude of people regarding Covid-19 vaccine in Iwaya district In Lagos state. The study employed a survey method. The total population of the study was 133 people, collected from the different departments in the school. This study employed a simple random sampling method to select its sample. The researcher utilized the Taro Yamane formula to evaluate a sample size of 100. The main instrument for data collection used in this study was the self-structured questionnaire. The study employed SPSS 19.0 in analyzing the responses from respondents and the results were presented in tables, frequencies, and percentages. The results of the study revealed a grand mean score of 4.27 which showed that the people in Iwaya district, Lagos state had an excellent knowledge of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccine. Also, the grand mean score of 4.08 showed that the acceptance of people towards COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya district, Lagos state was excellent. Lastly, the grand mean score of 3.98 showed that the people showed an acceptance towards COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya district, Lagos state was excellent. The study recommended that the health authorities via health care providers, who were identified by the people as the most trust source of information regarding information about COVID-19 vaccines, should design interventions in terms of awareness campaigns via all types of multimedia to spread more transparent information about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines.


Table of Contents


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Justification/ Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organization of the study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.1.1 Overview of Coronavirus
  • 2.1.2 The virus, its origins and evolution
  • 2.1.3 Epidemiology
  • 2.1.4 Etiology
  • 2.1.5 Signs and symptoms
  • 2.1.6 Complications
  • 2.1.7 Treatment
  • 2.1.8 COVID-19 vaccine
  • 2.2 Theoretical review
  • 2.3 Empirical review
  • 2.4 Summary of literature review

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Research setting
  • 3.4 Population of the study
  • 3.5 Sampling technique and size
  • 3.6 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.7 Validity of the instrument
  • 3.8 Reliability of the instrument
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.10 Ethical considerations

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Answers to research questions
  • 4.2 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The challenges posed by the novel coronavirus pandemic since late 2019 till date are one of the worst health challenges recorded after the 1918–1920 flu pandemic that claimed over 100 million lives globally (Andersen, Rambaut, Lipkin, Holmes, & Garry, 2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) is an illness of severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome caused by a novel coronavirus2 and has become a major public health concern. The disease is trans- mitted through saliva and mucus droplets from an infected person. The symptoms of the COVID-19 infection are similar to that of other beta coronaviruses. Symptoms include fever, cough, dyspnea, weakness and fatigue, headache and diarrhea (Jaber, Mafrachi, Al-Ani, &Shkara, 2021). COVID-19 disease is posing a great global public health threat in our world today since the first quarter of 2020. The catastrophic news of the Corona-virus, which has claimed thousands of lives around the world, has had a tsunami effect on every nation in the first quarter of 2020, halting all global economies without any notice or foresight from scientists and defying all scientific strength. Infected patients died at a higher rate, especially among the elderly who had underlying diseases such as cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory disorders, acute cough, and so on (Mueller, McNamara, & Sinclair, 2020). Despite the fact that COVID- 19 had an effect on almost every continent on the planet, climatic conditions played a significant role in determining the pandemic’s global impact, taking into account the unique characteristics of each region. However, regardless of race or age, the disease’s symptoms were the same. Death rates were being reported at breakneck pace in the newspapers, making it an especially trying time in human history (WHO, 2020).

COVID-19’s rapid spread is being investigated at all levels of human endeavor due to its grave consequences for all people affected across the world. The spread of COVID-19 is now relentless in almost all the countries of the world including Nigeria, causing serious public health, social and economic upheaval (Adebowale, Fagbamigbe, Akinyemi, Obisesan, Awosanya, Afolabi&Obabiyi, 2021). The mere surface of this pandemic, defying all scientific prowess, has plunged the entire planet into chaos. This conundrum necessitates a well-defined sequence and methodology that allows for adequate documentation of those impacted at all levels by the disease’s global impact. This, too, necessitates a strategic approach, especially in the case of disadvantaged groups of all kinds. Data have it that millions of people are still dying daily irrespective of the availability of the World Health Organization COVID-19 vaccine endorsement. The COVID-19 pandemic has created a new reality in which people are confronted with a previously unknown disease and its consequences, providing a unique opportunity to study vaccine attitudes at a time when disease awareness is high (Fridman, Gershon, &Gneezy, 2021).

Vaccines are the most important public health measure and most effective strategy for controlling diseases in many countries around the world (WHO, 2020). Moreover, the distribution of vaccines is highly significant in order to analyze community acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines. All these call for a concerted effort to arrest the pandemic. Hence, there is a need to encourage the COVID-19 vaccination to reduce the propagation rate. Ironically, the fear of death arising from COVID-19 disease and other controversies surrounding the vaccine safety in different parts of the world has increased fears in many Nigerians recently; unfortunately, the approved COVID-19 vaccine seems not to guarantee safety as many have anticipated (Anorue, Ugwu, Ugboaja, Nwabunze, Ugwulor-Onyinyechi & Njoku, 2021). It seems many people are not too eager to be vaccinated owing to the acclaimed side effects some health tips suggest such as myocarditis and Pericarditis associated with Pfizer and Moderna vaccine.

Consequently, spread of messages by the media through multiple channels have deliberately tried to douse fears and uncertainty regarding the vaccine safety. People tend to be more careful especially with the news of health complications resulting from those who have already taken the COVID-19 vaccine, especially the speculations that the vaccine alters ones “DNA” (Erinoso, Wright, Anya, Kuyinu, Abdurrazzaq, &Adewuya, 2020). This is in addition to social media videos demonstrating the magnetic and lighting potency of vaccines if injected area of someone is touched with metal or electric bulb as the case may be. Similarly, effective communication to create confidence and reduce public ambiguity is critical for promoting vaccination acceptability, willingness, and uptake, avoiding vaccine hesitancy, and dealing with any infodemic on the topic, such as in the case of COVID-19 vaccines which has turned out to be unsuitable in addressing the issue. More so, it appears the body language of many Nigerians show likelihood and tendency of rejecting the vaccine even if it is made compulsory by the government. Researchers have adduced reasons behind spreading of rumors, fake news, refusal of vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy globally with regard to COVID-19 vaccine. Thus, reasons such as: Vaccine susceptibility, risk perception, and reaction certain religious beliefs, lack of knowledge and awareness. Likewise other reasons from Nigeria setting and other countries, such as poor health literacy conflicts and insecurities, distrust in governments and firms that manufacture the vaccines remain a serious challenge (Jennings, Stoker, Willis, Valgardsson, Gaskell, Devine & Mills, 2021).


1.2 Statement of Problem

The debate around vaccines has been in the spotlight over the last few months in Nigeria, both within the scientific community and the public (Anorue et al., 2021). Two years into this pandemic, COVID-19 is far from the beginning when it started. According to the World Health organization (2020), the cases have been surpassed by 106 million cases, and dreadfully, more than 2.3 million people have lost their lives to the virus. To prevent, ways and methods such as lockdowns and stay-at-home instructions are effective to stop spreading transmission, especially if there is community support. Hence, these schemes have significant economic and social impacts. There is a scarce amount of research on this topic in rural communities in Nigeria, especially in regards to the elderly. Henceforth, the researcher seeks to assess the knowledge and attitude of people regarding COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of people regarding COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State.

Specifically, the following objectives will guide the study;

  1. To determine the level of knowledge of COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State
  2. To assess the attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State
  3. To identify the strategies to promote acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of knowledge of COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State?
  2. What is the attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State?
  3. What are the strategies to promote acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine in Iwaya District in Lagos State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great significance to the people, the healthcare profession and the community. The findings from this study will benefit the elderly by providing this information needed to improve and enhance quality care for themselves in light of the novel corona virus as well as improve their attitudes towards the vaccine and other precautionary measures. For the healthcare profession, the findings of the study will provide information on the effectiveness of strategies designed to shape people’s behavior without relying on their beliefs about vaccination. Lastly, the study will also contribute to the existing literature on COVID 19 and serve as an empirical literature for future studies.


1.6 Scope of Study

The study will be conducted in Iwaya District in Lagos State. The respondents that will be used are the residents who will be accessed via the community health center.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

In the process of carrying out the current study, the researcher encountered some limitations. Firstly, the study focused on Iwaya District in Lagos State, the conclusions drawn from this study cannot be generalized to other populations or areas. Secondly, the researcher faced time constraints and financial constraints.


1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

Covid 19:

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as illness caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-nCoV), which was first identified amid an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.

Knowledge:

Refers to the facts, information, and skills related to COVID 19 and the vaccination acquired through experience, education or other sources of information.

Attitude:

Refers to the perception and feeling of the people towards COVID 19 and the corona virus immunization.

Covid-19 Vaccine:

Refers to the process by which an individual’s immune system becomes fortified against COVID-19 through the vaccination.

Knowledge:

Refers to the facts, information, and skills related to COVID 19 and the vaccination acquired through experience, education or other sources of information.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This study was carried out on the assessment of knowledge and attitude of people regarding Covid-19 vaccine in Iwaya district In Lagos state. With the advent of mass vaccination to quell the COVID-19 pandemic, the distribution of strategically placed public health information regarding COVID-19 vaccination, delivered in locally customized and culturally appropriate language, may be instrumental in increasing the general public’s willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Our study findings raise major concerns about equitable vaccination, with poorer and less educated individuals having lower acceptance. Particularly concerning is also the lower acceptance among individuals with chronic disease who most require the vaccinations. There is an urgent need to further explore and address the fears and concerns of these groups to ensure equitable access to and utilization of COVID-19 vaccines.


5.2 Recommendations

The health authorities via health care providers, who were identified by the people as the most trust source of information regarding information about COVID-19 vaccines, should design interventions in terms of awareness campaigns via all types of multimedia to spread more transparent information about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines. The awareness campaigns should also shed the light over the new technology that was utilized in the production of few of them in order to boost COVID-19 vac- cines acceptance. Making the vaccine available for free or at subsidized prices by the government could as well enhance vaccines acceptance among the population.


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