Incidence Of Low Birth Weight Among Woman Of Child Bearing Age

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Incidence Of Low Birth Weight Among Woman Of Child Bearing Age


Abstract


The broad objective of this study borders on the incidence of low birth weight among woman of child bearing age using Kajarko Local Government in Kaduna State. The study examine the factors and risk associated to low birth weight among woman of child bearing age.

Survey research design was adopted for the study and with the aid of convenient sampling method, the researcher selected Fifty-five (55) participant who are Women and Health workers in Primary Health Center in Kajarko Local Government in Kaduna State. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which 50 responses were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in frequencies and tables using simple percentage, Mean and Standard Deviation. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistic package for social science (SPSS). Findings from the study revealed that the incidence of low birth weight is prevalent across regions and within the country however, the great majority of low-birth-weight births occur in low- and middle-income regions and especially in the most vulnerable populations in Karjako Local Government Kaduna State. Findings also revealed that Low birth weight (LBW) is considered as the single most important predictor of infant mortality, especially of deaths within the first month of life .

Hence the consequences of LBW is a significant determinant of infant and childhood morbidity, particularly of neurodevelopmental impairments such as mental retardation and learning disabilities. The study therefore recommend Policy makers and health planers should optimize programs of community based nutritional promotion programs giving due attention to rural segment of the community. The zonal and woreda health offices should work on the adequacy of nutritional counseling given to expectant mothers with due emphasis given to mothers lower than 50 kg in weight.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Birth weight is an important determinant of child survival and development. The World health organization (WHO) defined low birth weight (LBW) as weight at birth of less than 2,500 grams. This practical cut-off for international comparison is based on epidemiological observations that infants weighing less than 2,500 grams are approximately 20 times more likely to die than heavier babies [1]. The prevalence of LBW in any population reflects its socio-economic development and it is a good proxy to gauge the developmental status of the country [2].

Low birth weight (LBW) is closely associated with foetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibite growth and cognitive development and resulted chronic diseases later in life. Many factors affect foetal growth and thus, the birth weight. These factors operate to various extents in different environments and cultures. Low-birth-weight (LBW) babies are born each year, because of either as a result of preterm birth or impaired prenatal growth. Most especially in less developed countries. Which contribute substantially to a high rate of neonatal mortality whose frequency and distribution correspond to those of poverty ( Burmester, Pereira, Modelo ).

Low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth are thus associated with high neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity(4). Of the estimated 4 million neonatal deaths, preterm and low birth weight (LBW) babies represent more than a fifth. (Burmester, Pereira, Modelo). Therefore, the care of such infants becomes a burden for health and social systems everywhere. Low birth weight (LBW) remains a global health challenge with both short and long term adverse consequences. It is an important indicator of the health status of an infant and a principal factor that determines the infant survival, physical and mental development in the future2. Its etiology is complex and may vary from one setting to another. Delivery of LBW neonates has been associated with pre-term deliveries, anaemia, malnutrition and poor use of orthodox ante-natal services [5] These are particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, where factors such as malaria, poverty, illiteracy and poor accessibility to institutionalized health care facilities are rife. In sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia, which together account for over half (57%) of deliveries in the developing world, up to 65% of births occur outside hospitals and are predominantly delivered by traditional birth attendants (TBAs).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal death and children under the age of 5years. And in most countries with reliable data, preterm birth rates are increasing. An estimated 15million are born too early every year. That is more than 1 in 10 babies. Approximately 1million children die due to complications of preterm birth. Many survivors face a lifetime disabilities and visual hearing problems. Inequalities in survival rates around the world are stark. In low-income settings, half of the babies born at or below 32weeks (2months early) die due to lack of feasible, cost-effective care, such as warmth, breastfeeding support, and basic care for infections and breathing difficulties. In high income countries, almost all of these babies survive. The prevalence of low birth weight in the study area is common in Nigeria. To the researcher’s knowledge in KarjakoLocal Government Area in Kaduna State, no study has yet been done to elucidate the incidence low birth weight among women of child bearing age. Thus the aim of this study is to understudyincidence of low birth weight among woman of child bearing age.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine yincidence of low birth weight among woman of child bearing age. Specifically, the study seeks:

  1. To examine the causes of low birth weight among women of child bearing age.
  2. To determine the extent at which low birth weight occur among women of child bearing age in Karjako Local government area.
  3. To ascertain the risk associated with low birth weight among women of child bearing age in Karjako Local government area.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the causes of low birth weight among women of child bearing age?
  2. What is the extent at which low birth weight occur among women of child bearing age in Karjako Local government area?
  3. What are the risk associated with low birth weight among women of child bearing age in Karjako Local government area?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

HO1: The incidence of low birth weight among women of child bearing age is rare in Karjako Local government area.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This research is meant for policy makers, planners, health care providers, trainers and health training institutions at all levels. Kangaroo mother care is particularly useful for low birth weight infants (infants with a birth weight below 2500g) and preterm and it is beneficial to the participants which are the parents, the nursing practice, nursing education, the community and the nation at large. The result of this research is of great importance to parents because it will provide the basic need for survival as it may improves bond between parents and child. The result of this research will be beneficial to nursing practice as it could help nurses explore ways on how to improve the quality of care rendered to new born aside incubator care. This research is also important to nursing education because general knowledge on LBW increases the nurse ability on how to implement KMC and educate parents on how to carryout KMC. This research is of great importance to the community and even the nation at large as it importance can’t be overlooked. The used of incubator in community can go a long way in preserving the live of preterm/LBW infants as it provides warmth, creates positive effect on mental and cognitive development. Since the community is just like a small unit of the nation, when there is progress in community, there is progress in the nation at large.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the incidence of low birth weight among woman of child bearing age using Kajarko Local Government in Kaduna State. The study examine the factors and risk associated to low birth weight among woman of child bearing age.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

However, like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study which posed as a limitation. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited to selected Karjarko Primary Health Care Center only as few respondent were selected in Karjarko Primary Health Care Center to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other Hospitals and State. However, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The broad objective of this study borders on the incidence of low birth weight among woman of child bearing age using Kajarko Local Government in Kaduna State. The study examine the factors and risk associated to low birth weight among woman of child bearing age.

Survey research design was adopted for the study and with the aid of convenient sampling method, the researcher selected Fifty-five (55) participant who are Women and Health workers in Primary Health Center in Kajarko Local Government in Kaduna State. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which 50 responses were retrieved and validated for the study. Data was analyzed in frequencies and tables using simple percentage, Mean and Standard Deviation. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square Statistic package for social science (SPSS).


5.2 Conclusion

LBW is a global public health challenging problem. Its high priority stems from the fact that it is the major determinant of infant morbidity and that it contributes markedly to the overall burden of childhood death. LBW has also been linked to the high prevalence of stunting seen in low income countries and may be important in the ethology of chronic dietary diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

Findings from the study revealed that the incidence of low birth weight is prevalent across regions and within the country however, the great majority of low-birth-weight births occur in low- and middle-income regions and especially in the most vulnerable populations in Karjako Local Government Kaduna State. Findings also revealed that Low birth weight (LBW) is considered as the single most important predictor of infant mortality, especially of deaths within the first month of life . Hence the consequences of LBW is a significant determinant of infant and childhood morbidity, particularly of neurodevelopmental impairments such as mental retardation and learning disabilities. It is also closely associated with foetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibit growth and cognitive development and chronic diseases later in life.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations are forwarded:

Attendants of ANC should receive disease specific counseling by skilled health personnel with emphasis given to mothers with chronic medical illnesses. Policy makers and health planers should optimize programs of community based nutritional promotion programs giving due attention to rural segment of the community. The zonal and world health offices should work on the adequacy of nutritional counseling given to expectant mothers with due emphasis given to mothers lower than 50 kg in weight. The tradition of feeding of pregnant mothers was determined by paramount influence of religious leaders & the community as a whole therefore, there is a need to intensively discussions on the issue of prohibited foods with regional health bureau to averting this problem. Community based further studies are also needed to identify the effects of seasonal variations of nutrition on the effects of birth outcome.


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