Awareness And Practice Of Birth Preparedness And Complication Readiness Among The Women Of Reproductive Age (18-35) In Udu Local Government Of Delta State

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Awareness And Practice Of Birth Preparedness And Complication Readiness Among The Women Of Reproductive Age (18-35) In Udu Local Government Of Delta State


Abstract


This study was carried out to analysis the the awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women of reproductive age (18-35) in Udu Local Government Of Delta State. The study is was specifically set to determine the level of women awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State, find out the acceptably practices of birth preparedness and complication readiness among women in Udu Local Government Of Delta State, find out the extent women utilizes birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State, and ascertain the factors affecting pregnant women practice and utilization of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of women of reproductive age (18-35) in Udu Local Government Of Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 264 respondents and 259 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that pregnant women has an average knowledge of birth preparedness and complication readiness. The result of the findings reveals that women in the study area has an average level of awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness. Therefore, it is recommended that there is a need for slight shift in focus on maternal and child care projects of government. Investments in improving awareness on danger signs appear to have paid off, however improving access by lowering financial requirements is imperative. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

It is true that birth of baby precedes celebration but it equally poses source of concern as pregnancy and childbirth is sometimes a perilous journey especially in the developing countries, where the risk of a woman dying from pregnancy and related complications is almost 40 times greater than that of her counterparts in developed countries (Benson & Yinger, 2002). Maternal mortality remains a public health challenge world wide, and the global maternal mortality ratio of 525 per 100,000 live births annually is still unacceptably high (Hogan, 2010). A disproportionately high burden of these maternal deaths is borne by developing countries including Nigeria, with a maternal mortality ratio of 500– 1,000 per 100,000 live births (World Bank, 2013). These deaths arise from pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum complications. According to WHO (2009), maternal deaths are thought to occur in developing countries due to delay in deciding to seek appropriate care, delay in reaching an appropriate health facility, and delay in receiving adequate emergency care once at a facility. These delays may be reduced if pregnant women and their families are prepared for birth and its complications. Birth preparedness and complication readiness strategy is therefore, very relevant in this regard.This strategy can reduce the number of women dying from complications due to such delays by making a birth plan that constitutes birth-preparedness and complication-readiness measures for pregnant women, their spouses and their families (McPherson, Khadka, Moore & Sharma, 2006).

Birth-preparedness and complication-readiness is a comprehensive package aimed at promoting timely access to skilled maternal and neonatal services. It is a safe motherhood strategy whose objective is to promote the timely use of skilled maternal and neonatal care during childbirth or obstetric emergencies by reducing delays at the first, second and third levels (Maternal and Neonatal Health Program, 2007). It entails making plans prior to birth to ensure that a pregnant woman is prepared for normal birth and complications. The birth-preparedness package promotes active preparation and decision-making for delivery by pregnant women and their families. (McPherson, et al, 2006). Decision are made and documented on such issues as desired place for birth, the preferred skilled birth attendant, items required for birth, birth companion, getting a compatible blood donor and arranging in advance for transport. This stems from the fact that every pregnant woman faces risk of sudden and unpredictable life threatening complications that could end in death or injury to herself or to her baby (JHPIEGO, 2006).
Other elements of birth preparedness include knowledge of expected date of delivery, signs of labour, dangers signs, HIV testing, mobilising resources to pay for services, arranging for someone to take care of the family during delivery. Importance of post- natal care, importance of exclusive breast feeding and contraception (Maternal and Neonatal Health Program 2003). In addition, a potential blood donor and a decision maker (in case of emergencies) need to be identified (Kaye, Mirembe, Azigy, Namuelema, 2003).

Approximately 15% of pregnant women develop life-threatening complications hence need for emergency obstetric care. These complications are unpredictable and may progress rapidly to a fatal outcome (Rogo & Aloo, 2011). Knowledge of danger signs of obstetric emergencies and appreciation of the need for rapid and appropriate response when emergencies occur may reduce delay in decision making and in reaching health facilities. Such signs in pregnancy are vaginal bleeding, severe headache, severe vomiting, swelling of hands and face, difficulty in breathing, fits, fever, reduction or absent fetal movement and drainage of liquor (WHO, 2009). Therefore, this package is a very important strategy in developing countries, where obstetric services are poor. Birth plan should be discussed on the first clinic visit, reviewed in subsequent visits and finalized by 32 weeks (Barbara & Gomez, 2007).

One of the key roles of antenatal care is to provide health education on danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, preparation of a birth plan and to encourage delivery under a skilled attendant. WHO (2009) now recommends that pregnant women should receive focused antenatal care in which birth preparedness and complication readiness is a key component (WHO, 2009), Ministry of Health, Kenya, (2012). In order to address this disturbing trend, the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) urged that special efforts should be made to emphasise men’s shared responsibility and promote their active involvement in maternity care (JHPIEGO, 2006). In spite of this, pregnancy and childbirth continue to be regarded as exclusively women’s affairs in most African countries, especially in the rural settings (Mullick, Kunene, & Wanjiru, 2005).


1.2 Statement of the Study

In sub-Saharan Africa, pregnancy and childbirth continues to be viewed as solely women’s issues (JHIPIEGO, 2006). A male companion at antenatal care is rare and in many rural communities, it is unthinkable to find male companions accompany a woman to the labour room during delivery (Mullick, Kunene & Wanjiru, 2005; Babalola & Fatusi, 2009). This posture of men towards BP/CR depicts lack of knowledge of their role in pregnancy and child birth. Yet, men have social and economic power, especially in Africa including Delta State. They also, have tremendous control over their partners, so they decide the timing and conditions of sexual relations, family size and whether their spouse will utilize available health care services (Iliyasu, 2010). This situation makes male partner involvement critical if improvement in maternal health and reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality is to be realized. His engagement in maternity care seems to be lacking in developing countries especially rural communities. Male involvements will enable men to support their spouses to utilize emergency obstetric services early and the couple would adequately prepare for birth and get themselves ready for complications. This does not seem to be the case in developing countries including Nigeria and Delta state. Birth preparedness and complication readiness is an issue that concerns both male and female (couples) for better outcome of pregnancy and delivery, but it seems to be viewed as women’s responsibility. This poses a big problem. There is therefore the need to assess the knowledge, practice and factors that influence birth preparedness and complication readiness among couples in selected rural communities in Delta State since there are documented evidence that maternal mortality is higher in rural communities than in the urban settings (WHO, 2014). Based on the aforementioned, this study seek to assess the awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women of reproductive age (18-35) in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to examine the awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women of reproductive age (18-35) in Udu Local Government Of Delta State. Other aims of this study are:

  1. Determine the level of women awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.
  2. Find out the acceptably practices of birth preparedness and complication readiness among women in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.
  3. Find out the extent women utilizes birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.
  4. Ascertain the factors affecting pregnant women practice and utilization of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the level of women awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State?
  2. What are the acceptably practices of birth preparedness and complication readiness among women in Udu Local Government Of Delta State?
  3. What is the extent women utilizes birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State?
  4. What are the factors affecting women practice and utilization of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypothesis will be tested in this study:

  • Ho: The level of awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness among women of reproductive age in Udu Local Government Of Delta State is low.
  • Ha: The level of awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness among women of reproductive age in Udu Local Government Of Delta State is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study has relevance to the general public, nurse practitioners, nurse administrators and nurse educators. It will be significant to the general public as findings from this study will show the need for couples and the general public to be prepared for birth and any complications that may arise, thereby reducing the risk/incidences of maternal and infant mortality. Findings from the study will equip the couples with invaluable information on birth preparedness and complication readiness, which will go a long way, if applied to ensure better and safer maternal health for the mothers.

This study will also be relevant to the nurse practitioners as they will be equipped with the findings from this study, which will enable them adequately prepare the couples for birth and possibly avoid any complication that may arise. Findings from this study can be utilized by nurse administrators who will ensure that the necessary environments are provided that will enable the nurse oversee the adoption of birth preparedness and complication readiness.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women of reproductive age (18-35) in Udu Local Government Of Delta State. The study will by extension ascertain the factors affecting women practice and utilization of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Delta State. The respondents for this study will comprise of women of reproductive age between 18-35 in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness:

This is a comprehensive strategy that focuses on promoting the timely utilization of skilled maternal and neonatal health care and includes attending antenatal care at least four times during pregnancy, identifying a skilled provider and making a plan for reaching the facility during labour, setting aside personal funds to cover the costs of traveling to and delivering with a skilled provider and any required supplies, recognizing signs of complications, knowing what community resources (emergency transport, funds, communications, etc), are available in case of emergencies and having a plan for emergencies, obstetric care and referral system for Emergency Obstetric Case.

Knowledge:

The information and understanding gained through education.

Practice:

Action taken by couples towards BP/CR.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge and utilization of birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Sapele, Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the awareness and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness among the women of reproductive age (18-35) in Udu Local Government Of Delta State. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the level of women awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State, find out the acceptably practices of birth preparedness and complication readiness among women in Udu Local Government Of Delta State, find out the extent women utilizes birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State, and ascertain the factors affecting pregnant women practice and utilization of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are women of reproductive age (18-35) in Udu Local Government Of Delta State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Women in the study area has an average level of awareness of birth preparedness and complication readiness.
  2. The acceptably practices of birth preparedness and complication readiness include; attended antenatal care at least 4 times, put in use health education on pregnancy and childbirth complications, made a plan of the facility to deliver from, saved money in case of pregnancy/birth complications, arranged to have a birth companion or attendant during delivery, provide transport or keep money aside for transport, makes provision for blood donation, buys baby’s clothing and other requirements, and makes arrangement for care of the home during mother’s absence.
  3. The extent women utilizes birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State is at the average level.
  4. The factors affecting women practice and utilization of birth preparedness and complication readiness in Udu Local Government Of Delta State include; location of health facility, lack of blood donors, financial constraint, lack of support/assistance (financial), lack of transportation particularly at night, and premature delivery.

5.4 Recommendations

The researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. There is a need for slight shift in focus on maternal and child care projects of government. Investments in improving awareness on danger signs appear to have paid off, however improving access by lowering financial requirements is imperative.
  2. There is also a need to improve transportation facilities suitable for pregnant women at the rural communities. This will significantly improve outcomes especially when emergencies occur and the need for referrals arise.
  3. Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) should focus on improving access to cheaper medical services for majority of low income earners in rural communities.

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