Effect Of Assertiveness And Emotional Self-Awareness On Students’ Achievement In Accounting In Ondo State

Accounting Education Project and Seminar Material

Effect Of Assertiveness And Emotional Self-Awareness On Students’ Achievement In Accounting In Ondo State


Abstract


This research work is centralized on the effect of assertiveness and emotional self awareness (emotional intelligence) on accounting students’ academic achievement and with subtopical issues related to the subject matter such as; conceptualization of emotional intelligence, its importance and ways in which self awareness among other components of emotion intelligence affect the achievement of accounting students among other interesting and unavoidable topics. It involves gathering of information from selected sample (active accounting students from five selected secondary schools in Iwaro Oka community in Akoko South West Local Government; Agbogbo, Esedo, Wisdom College, Saint Patrick & Ogoso senior secondary school) A questionnaire system was used to collect information. The results showed that self-awareness and self-regulation cannot stand alone as a determinant of academic success on accounting student. Self-regulation does not have a positive and significant impact on students’ Academic Achievement in Accounting. Empathy has a negative and significant effect on students academic achievement in accounting. It is also concluded that gender and age do not have significant effect but that empathy have positive significant because empathy is able to understand what others felt. Therefore, it is important to give education about how to improve assertive and self emotional awareness to the Accounting students, in Ondo State because emotional intelligence has an important role in determining someone success in the future.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

One of the important components to live in the community is the ability to manage the emotions. Emotional Quotation (EQ) includes the ability to express feelings, awareness and understanding of emotions and the ability to regulate and control it. Salovey and Mayer in Awangga (2008), defined Emotional Intelligence (assertiveness and emotional awareness) or EQ as the ability to know own feelings and the feelings of others, and use those feelings, requires thought and behavior. Education is an invaluable asset because it is the basis for the individual and society. A factor that can support the success of senior secondary school education accounting is emotional intelligence (assertiveness and self awareness).

Accounting knowledge is instrumental to hold and run the company’s operations because the accounting provides financial information to support the decision making process. The role and function of accounting in the world of education is to provide quantitative information, especially about finance, that is useful in making economic decisions for entities. It can be imagined when an accountant in a company does not have the integrity and high emotional intelligence. The operational activities of the company will not be able to run smoothly and the company will not be able to develop because the accountant may not be able to present the correct company’s financial statements. Based on the above descriptions, it can be concluded that emotional intelligence has an important role for accounting students career and the career of an accountant. Nevertheless, formal education in Nigeria, Ondo State in particular ranging from elementary schools, junior high schools, and high school, still has not taught the emotional intelligence that may result in students good attitudes such as integrity, commitment, as well as visionary that needed by the young generation.

Formal education is still seeing a student from learning outcomes or scores gained on learning process in class as evidenced by the ranking in school, and their IQ scores. It can be concluded that the formal education assess students is clever based on the numerical facts. It is regardless of how they control themselves, self-knowledge, motivation, empathetic attitude toward others, and social skills to interact with others. Sundem (1993) in Rachmi (2010) worried about the lack of clarity on the accounting industry generated by secondary school accounting system; this is because many secondary schools are not able to make their students good in the knowledge and life skills. Students are familiar with the memorization learning but they do not understand the lesson. This make the students tend to easily forget what they’ve learned or difficult to understand what will be taught next. Daniel Goleman in Martin (2003) mentioned that intellectual intelligence contributed only 20 percent to the success of someone’s life. The rest, 80 percent relies on the emotional intelligence.

However, it cannot be said that the value in the form number is not more important than emotional intelligence. This value is used to measure the extent to which a student is disciplined and conscientious in following formal learning. Because, formal education is also important to provides a broader knowledge for students in accordance with their field. A student should not only gain knowledge through formal education. If student seeks knowledge outside the classroom, then they will occupy one level above the student who only seek knowledge in the classroom. McClelland (1973) in Agustian (2001) stated that a set of specific skills such as empathy, self-discipline, and initiative may determine those who are successful in jobs. Academic achievements may predicate not be the only indicator of a person’s performance on the job or the success can be achieved. There are many examples that show the academic success resulting in the success at work. Often, a low formal education achievers are more successful at work because they have high emotional intelligence.

Based on components of emotional intelligence, Yuniani (2010) conducted a study to determine which of the components of emotional intelligence that affects to the level of understanding in accounting. The results showed that self-awareness, self-regulation and motivation affect the level of understanding of accounting students. While, empathy and social skills are not affect to the level on understanding of accounting. However, there are some studies that show emotional intelligence cannot predict academic achievement. This is evidenced by a study conducted by Dewanto and Nurhayati (2012) which shows that emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence do not affect the attitude of ethical and accounting student achievement. Ardana (2013) also showed that only the Intellectual Intelligence can significantly predict accounting students’ academic performance.

While, the other independent variables such as emotional intelligence, spiritual intelligence, and physical intelligence failed to predict the Academic Achievement of accounting students. Thus, a study conducted by Barchard (2003) explained that Emotional Intelligence is not a primary factor that determines academic success. Emotional Intelligence is associated with academic success, but its role is not greater than verbal skills. Cognitive ability and personality characteristics take more important role in predicting academic success. Although each of these researchers have different dependent variable, but the elements is academic dimension that can reflect achievements as it will also be examined in this research work. But, despite having some similarities with the study plan, this research chooses achievement based on grade point average, of accounting students.

This research work develops the study of Prasetyo (2013), who explored whether there is a relationship between emotional intelligence and the achievement of an accounting student from selected secondary schools in Iwaro Oka community in Oka Akoko Ondo State. The motivation of the research work is to deeply examine the components of emotional intelligence that will affect significantly on academic results on accounting students, and to determine whether there are differences in the results of studies that have been conducted previously and this recent research. This research uses different population and there are additional variables from previous studies. In the previous study, independent variables used are emotional intelligence and learning behavior, while this research uses emotional intelligence as an independent variable that will be categorized into five criteria based on Goleman (2005) covering Self-Awareness, Self-Regulation, Motivation, Empathy, and Social skill.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Formal education in Nigeria, Ondo State in particular ranging from elementary schools, junior high schools, and high school, still has not taught the emotional intelligence that may result in students good attitudes such as integrity, commitment, as well as visionary that needed by the young generation. Formal education is still seeing a student from learning outcomes or scores gained on learning process in class as evidenced by the ranking in school, and their IQ scores. It is regardless of how they control themselves, self-knowledge, motivation, empathetic attitude toward others, and social skills to interact with others. Lack of clarity on the accounting industry generated by secondary school accounting system; this is because many secondary schools are not able to make their students good in the knowledge and life skills. Students are familiar with the memorization learning but they do not understand the lesson. This make the students tend to easily forget what they’ve learned or difficult to understand what will be taught next.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

  1. To analyze the components of emotional intelligence.
  2. To investigate if the components of emotional intelligence (Self Awareness, self regulation, motivation, social skills and empathy) have effect on students’ academic achievement.
  3. To investigate the importance of emotional intelligence on accounting students’ academic achievement.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the components of emotional intelligence?
  2. What is the relative influence of assertiveness and emotional self awareness on students’ academic achievement?

1.5 Benefit of the Study

The purpose of this research work is to determine whether self awareness among the components of emotional intelligence which consists of five categories, such as:

  1. Self-Awareness,
  2. Self-Regulation,
  3. Motivation,
  4. Empathy, and
  5. Social Skills that are effect on students’ academic achievement on accounting.

The motivation of the research work is to deeply examine the components of emotional intelligence that will affect significantly on academic results on accounting students. Emotional intelligence is very significant and important for everyone, especially the students who are in the learning phase for their future career. Thus, graduate students from secondary and even higher institution should increase their emotional intelligence level. To achieve it, it requires educators to actually implement these changes into their educational programs.

Business educators, in particular, have a responsibility to provide graduated students with a strong foundation in both technical and emotional training so they are later become a good person, an effective managers and dynamic leaders. This research work, therefore, is also very significant as it contribute to the existing body of knowledge related to the effect of self assertiveness and self awareness (emotional intelligence) on the performance of accounting students.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This research work is centralized on the effect of assertiveness and emotional self awareness (emotional intelligence) on students achievement in accounting and with sub topical issues that are related to the subject matter such as; conceptualization of emotional intelligence, its importance and ways in which self awareness among other components of emotional intelligence affect the achievement of accounting students among other interesting and unavoidable topics.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

This research work has the potential to be very and highly extensive. However, some limitations prevent that to happen. Limitation such as limited time frame, insufficient funds and limited source of information such as; limited books, internet source, internet link etc.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Self awareness:

Is the ability to know our internal situation and it is very important in the formation of a positive self-concept.

Emotional Intelligence:

Emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor and control own feelings and use those feelings to guide thought and action.

Accounting Student:

Is someone studying scientific study of account.

Academic Achievement:

Is a result of the efforts that have been achieved by someone in the field of scientific knowledge and theory.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This research work examined the measured effects of assertiveness and emotional self awareness on accounting students’ academic achievement, in Ondo State. In this research work, the emotional intelligence is categorized into Self Awareness, Self Regulation, Motivation, Empathy, and Social Skills. The simultaneously test showed that assertiveness and emotional self-awareness have no effect on accounting students’ academic achievement. Meanwhile, the partial test results showed that there is no joint influence between assertiveness, emotional self-awareness and students’ academic achievement in accounting concepts.

The results showed that assertiveness and self-emotional awareness cannot stand alone as a determinant of academic success on accounting student. Because, assertiveness and self emotional awareness are psychological factors that indirectly affect academic achievement. There are other factors which have a greater role in determining academic achievement such as learning behavior. Because, learning behavior is a form of real effort in determining academic success of students in Accounting.

Self Awareness does not have a positive and significant impact on students’ academic achievement in Accounting. In the learning process, the confidence is not a major factor because the teacher will give a grade based on the final results in which the activity of the students only have a small percentage compared to the percentage of Middle and Final Exam in determining the final value.

Self Regulation does not have a positive and significant impact on students’ academic achievement in Accounting. Have a high self-control is not the main factor that determines academic achievement. Indeed, if student cannot control their emotions, it will affect on their concentration during class. It means that it will affect the understanding of the subjects. However, students are still able to search the information about subjects outside the classroom that they do not understand.

Motivation does not have a positive and significant impact on students’ academic achievement in Accounting. Motivation in here is the motivation that comes from within the self. However, Accounting student has a high motivation is because the classroom environment or teacher take a major role to improve the academic performance of the students. Then, motivation is not coming from their self.

Empathy has a positive and significant impact on students’ academic achievement in Accounting. Empathy is one factor that can determine a student’s academic achievement because empathy is able to understand what others felt. Thus, have high empathy is one of the factors that determine the high academic achievement because if students have high empathy, then they can easily catch the material presented by the lecturer.

Social skills do not have a positive and significant impact on students’ academic achievement in Accounting. Has a high social skills means that the student is able to communicate well with others. However, social skills are not a factor that determines students’ academic achievement because a factor that can determine a student’s academic achievement is the understanding of the material, then it is not necessary to have a good communication with others.


5.2 Conclusion

This research work concludes that combined influence of assertiveness and self emotional awareness do not have significant effect on accounting students’ academic achievement. It is also concluded that gender and age do not have significant effect on accounting students’ academic achievement but that empathy have positive significant because empathy is able to understand what others felt.


5.3 Recommendations

Noting to the conclusions and limitations of this study that has been described above, the researcher proposed suggestions for further research:

Researcher suggest for the next researcher to analyze the other factors that can affect students’ academic achievement not only on assertiveness and self emotional awareness, but also involves intellectual and spiritual intelligence on academic achievement.

Although this results showed that assertiveness and self emotional awareness have no effect on accounting students’ academic achievement, it cannot be concluded that assertiveness and self-emotional awareness do not have important role in determining someone success in the future. Then, it need for long-term research to determine the effect on assertiveness and self emotional awareness to the success in future rather than only on academic success.

It is important to give education about how to improve assertiveness and self emotional awareness to the Accounting students, in Ondo State because emotional intelligence has an important role in determining someone success in the future.


5.4 Limitation to the Study

However this research work noticed some short comings that serve as limitation to the research work which can be fixed possibly by future researchers, namely;

This research work uses accounting students of selected secondary schools in Akoko South West Ondo State as respondents which cannot describe the measured effect of assertiveness and self emotional awareness on the academic achievement of students in general and the results would be different when using other respondent.

This study used a questionnaire in which respondents were given several statements to assess themselves, which could affect on the accuracy of the results because the perception of the respondents presented do not necessarily reflect the real situation. It is necessary using interview method after using questionnaires to confirm the respondents’ answers.


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