The Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Women Of Child Bearing Age (15 – 45 Years) In Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State

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The Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Women Of Child Bearing Age (15 – 45 Years) In Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the practice of female genital mutilation among women of child bearing age (15 – 45 years) in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State. The study was carried out to determine the respondents knowledge on female genital cutting, assess the factors influencing the practice of female genital cutting among women of child bearing age, and ascertain the consequences of the practice of female genital mutilation. The population size comprised of women within 15 to 45 years in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of knowledge on female genital cutting among women of child bearing age in Abavo, Ika South Local Government is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the consequences of the practice of female genital mutilation includes: infections, severe bleeding, difficulties in menstruation, and obstetric tears/lacerations. Therefore, it is recommended that it is very important to identify and teach those traditional circumcisers about complications of FGM, and also to make them participate in the movement to discharge this long held tradition from the community. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The World Health Organization defined female genital mutilation (FGM) as all procedures which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and or injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons [1]. Female genital mutilation is an unhealthy traditional practice inflicted on girls and women worldwide. It is widely recognized as a desecration of human rights which is deeply ingrained in cultural beliefs and perception over decades and generations with no easy task for change [2]. According to WHO’s latest data, 200 million women and girls in the planet earth are thought to have been subjected to the practice and more than three million are at risk of having it performed on them yearly [1]. FGM constitutes an extreme form of discrimination and violation of human rights of girls and women with health consequences now acknowledged and documented [3-7]. It is experienced in more than 28 African countries and some communities worldwide. Its encumbrance is felt more in countries like Nigeria, Egypt, Mali, Eritrea, Sudan, Central African Republic and Northern part Ghana where it has been in existence for ages [8,9]. The highest prevalence is seen in Somalia and Djibouti where FGM is almost the norm [8]. FGM is widely practiced in Nigeria, having the highest absolute number of cases of FGM worldwide and accounting for 25% of the estimated number of women circumcised worldwide. In Nigeria, the topmost prevalence of FGM is seen in south-south region (77%), followed by southeast (68%) and southwest (65%) [2,9]. However, it is being practiced on a lesser degree in the north although unexpectedly tending to have a more extreme form [2, 9]. Nigeria has an estimated population of 200 million people in 2019, according to the latest census figures and projections from Trading Economics, with the women population forming 52% [2, 9, 10]. The Nigerian countrywide prevalence of FGM among the female population is 41% [2]. In most societies, FGM is considered a cultural tradition [11, 12, 13].

The World Health Organization categorizes the FGM into four distinct classifications [1, 14, 15]. Three of the four categories are further broken down into subcategories that classify the specific type of mutilation that was performed. Type I is known as clitoridectomy and includes any procedure that totally removes the clitoris and/or the prepuce [14]. Type Ia is the removal of the clitoris hood or prepuce only while Type Ib includes the removal of both the clitoris and the prepuce [14]. Type II, or excision, is the partial or total removal of the labia minora unrelated to any mutilation performed on the labia majora. Type IIa includes the removal of the labia minora only. Type IIb is the removal of the labia minora and the partial or total removal of the clitoris [14]. Type IIc involves the removal or the clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora. Infibulation, or Type III, is the third category of mutilation procedures defined as the narrowing of the vaginal orifice with the sealing of the perineum by cutting and repositioning the labia minora and labia majora with or without the excision of the clitoris. Type IIIa references specifically procedures done with the removal and apposition of the labia minora, while Type IIIb includes procedures done with only the labia majora [14]. Type IV is a broad category that includes all other harmful techniques done devoid of medical purpose to the female genitals. This includes any cutting, herbal treatments, or burns that change or harm the patient’s body [1]. Despite all influence of medical innovation as well as earnest and conscientious activity such as awareness programs, public orientations, funding of researches, publication by the government and non- governmental organization and also private individual both at the national and international level to eradicate this bigoted practice, the phenomenon appears to still be in vogue till date [16]. In Nigeria there are still cases in which children at infancy and childhood age are being circumcised in isolation as a result of their cultural and religious beliefs, norms and myth and the likes. Despite the fact that the health risks associated with FGM are numerous, this harmful practice has continued unabated and the burden is high in low-income countries especially in Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is regrettably persistent in many parts of the world. This occurs commonly in developing countries where it is firmly anchored on culture and tradition, not minding many decades of campaign and legislation against the practice (WHO, 2018). Female genital mutilation comprises any procedure involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reason (WHO, 2018; WHO, 2016). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that between 100 and 140 million girls and women worldwide are presently living with female genital mutilation and every year about three million girls are at risk (WHO, 2018).

Mothers in our study shared the opinion of FGM having no benefits for females because of the ongoing campaigns against the practice, as well as the fact that they were being interviewed by healthcare professionals, who are seen to be among the groups involved in championing the fight against FGM in the country. They also likely reported that uncircumcised females will become sexually promiscuous because this is a widely held perception in the community where our study was carried out. In view of the above, this study seek to assess the practice of female genital multilation among women of child bearing age (15 – 45 years).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study seek to assess the practice of female genital mutilation among women of child bearing age (15 – 45 years) in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State. Specific objectives of the study are stated below.

  1. Determine the respondents knowledge on female genital cutting.
  2. Assess the factors influencing the practice of female genital cutting among women of child bearing age.
  3. Ascertain the consequences of the practice of female genital mutilation.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions were raised;

  1. What is the level of knowledge on female genital cutting among women of child bearing age in Abavo, Ika South Local Government?
  2. What are the factors influencing the practice of female genital cutting among women of child bearing age?
  3. What are the consequences of the practice of female genital mutilation?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Women of child bearing age in Abavo, Ika South Local Government do not have adequate knowledge of FGM.
  • Ha: Women of child bearing age in Abavo, Ika South Local Government have adequate knowledge of FGM.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Assessing the KAP of the main victims of FGM is a very important measure towards the movement of discharging this long held tradition from the society which is suffering from its immediate as well long-term consequences. It has a great significance in the preparation for bringing an attitude change in mothers and to empower them above all by understanding that most common reasons for the practice of FGM stem from direct or indirect attitude of down grading women and looking at them as beings created to serve the other sex and it is this social attitude which is playing an important role that needs to be destroyed in order to achieve at behavioral change. Improvement of maternal health is incorporated in the millennium development goals (MDG) as one of the prerequisites for development and poverty reduction. Therefore, it is essential to describe their KAP before all actions that will be forwarded for improvement of maternal health. The study results will be used at all levels that are hoped to play a part in the improvement of maternal health ranging from the healthcare planners to those working in the periphery and by others who want to use the study result for their study in related topics in the future.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on the the practice of female genital mutilation among women of child bearing age ( 15 – 45 years) in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State. Hence, hence the population of this study will comprise of women within 15 to 45 years in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Female Genital Mutilation:

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the practice of female genital mutilation among women of child bearing age (15 – 45 years) in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the practice of female genital mutilation among women of child bearing age (15 – 45 years) in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State. The study was specifically set determine the respondents knowledge on female genital cutting, assess the factors influencing the practice of female genital cutting among women of child bearing age, and ascertain the consequences of the practice of female genital mutilation.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are women within 15 to 45 years in Abavo, Ika South Local Government Area Of Delta State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The level of knowledge on female genital cutting among women of child bearing age in Abavo, Ika South Local Government is high.
  2. The factors influencing the practice of female genital cutting among women of child bearing age includes: level of education, cultural practice, religion
  3. The consequences of the practice of female genital mutilation includes: infections, severe bleeding, difficulties in menstruation, and obstetric tears/lacerations.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Even though the magnitude of FGM in the study area is below the national prevalence it advocacies through different mass medias need to be continued in organized and in a way the community at rural area get information in accessible manner, Teachers, religious leaders and health professionals need to continue in teaching the society about consequences of FGM.
  2. Proper sensitization of youth, fathers, religious leaders and legislators in order to put great pressure on the mothers, grandmothers and on those who perform the practice.
  3. It is also very important to identify and teach those traditional circumcisers about complications of FGM, and also to make them participate in the movement to discharge this long held tradition from the community.
  4. The law enforcement bodies need to take strong action in those who perform FGM and teach the community about the legal prohibition of FGM.
  5. Mothers who do not circumcised their daughters need to be encouraged and taken as model to teach other mothers.

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