Knowledge And Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Mothers With Children Under 15 Years Of Age
The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State. In a descriptive survey design that used questionnaire as the instrument for data collection, a random sample of 278 mothers were adopted for the study, which achieved a response rate of 93.5% representing 260 retrieved questionnaires. The result of the study reveals that majority 154 (69.4%) of the mothers see it as cutting of the external genitalia. The result revealed that 96% know that female genital mutilation has harmful effects. 124 (55.9%) are aware of pain while 79 (35.6%) know of bleeding. Also, the result revealed that 7(2.7%) do not support the practice should be abolished. While (97.3%) were of the opinion that the practice should be abolished. The result reveled that ignorance is the highest 128 (57.7%) factor influencing the respondent’s knowledge of the harmful effects of female genital mutilation. Based on the findings of this study, a considerable number of the respondents know the exact meaning of female genital mutilation, but their knowledge on the harmful effects, especially the later effects are poor. The study recommended that nurses and health workers should cease every opportunity they have to educate the mothers and the general public on the harmful effects of female genital mutilation. This can be achieved by organizing health teachings in clinics, seminars, sharing fliers, putting up information on billboards and also outreach programs to sensitize mothers and the general public on the dangers of female genital mutilation, both immediate and long term.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the study
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of study
- 1.8 Limitations of the Study
- 1.9 Operational definition of terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Female Genital Mutilation And Women’S Reproductive Health
- 2.3 Theoretical Review
- 2.4 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Research Setting
- 3.3 Target population
- 3.4 Sample Size
- 3.5 Instruments for data collection
- 3.6 Validity of instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
- 3.8 Method of data collection
- 3.9 Method of data analysis
Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary of the Study
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
Female Genital Mutilation is also known as Female Genital Cutting in Nigeria and is the leading cause of genital mutilation (FGC/M) worldwide (Okeke, 2012). Female genital mutilation has become a major health problem that has attracted the attention of health professionals around the world. It is a global problem. Estimates based on a survey estimate that 100 to 140 girls and women worldwide have suffered from a form of female genital mutilation and 3 million of them are not exposed to invasive risks every year (WHO, 2015). Female genital mutilation is an extreme form of discrimination and violation of the human rights of girls and women. It is almost always done to minors. The practice also violates the right to health, personal integrity, security, the absence of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment of a person, and the right to life if the trial leads to death (UNICEF, 2016).
The attitude of the mothers is that of cultural tone and obedience to the spouses. Parents with a low educational level are highly valued among those who practice female genital mutilation because they are unaware of the harmful effects of female genital mutilation. Most parents are misinformed about the complications and health effects of female genital mutilation and this contributes greatly to the practice (Meandelo-ya-wana, 2013).
In general, the cultural context is the most common reason for the practice of female genital mutilation. These are mainly in African countries like Sudan, where uncircumcised women are taboo and marriage is denied. In Nigeria, especially in Igbo Land, the belief is based on the assumption that uncircumcised women are more promiscuous than their circumcised peers. For this reason, it is generally believed that the erotic clitoris and, to some extent, the labia minora, which are the main structures removed during the procedure, are so sensitive and stimulating that any woman who has not been excised is hardly sexual. it can be satisfied, and this leads to promiscuity. They argued that to ensure that the girl does not promiscate, every woman should be circumcised (Nnabue, 2014). The researcher hopes that knowledge of the harmful effects of female genital mutilation will help eradicate the practice.
It is well known that FGM is harmful to girls and women in many ways and has short-term and long-term health consequences (UNICEF, 2017). The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) unfortunately continues in many parts of the world. This often happens in developing countries, especially in Nigeria, where it is firmly rooted in culture and tradition, despite decades of campaigns and laws against practice. To truly assess the magnitude of the situation, it is instructive to consider some data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2016). It is estimated that between 100 and 140 million girls and women worldwide have suffered female genital mutilation, and more than 3 million girls are cut every year on the African continent alone (WHO, 2012).
According to a 2012 World Health Organization study, about 60% of the total population of Nigeria has suffered from one of two forms of genital mutilation. Another disturbing trend is that, despite the fact that a resolution of the Forty-sixth World Health Assembly called for the eradication of female genital mutilation in all nations, the practice is still widespread in the country. Therefore, when observing the short and long term effects of female genital mutilation, it can cause pain, bleeding, shock, infection, cysts, prolonged labor, keloids, psychological trauma and infertility, depending on the severity of the procedure (Chibber, 2011). It is in view of this that the researcher seeks to find out the level of awareness of mothers on female genital mutilation as well as to assess their attitude towards the harmful effect of female genital mutilation on reproductive health of the women.
1.2 Statement of Problem
In Nigeria, the subjection of girls and women to hiding traditional practices is legendary (UNICEF, 2011). FGM is an unhealthy traditional practice that is inflicted on girls and women around the world. FGM is widely recognized as a violation of human rights, deeply rooted in cultural beliefs and perceptions for decades and generations, without an easy task for change. Although FGM is practiced in more than 28 African countries and scattered communities around the world, its burden can be seen in Nigeria, Egypt, Mali, Eritrea, Sudan, the Central African Republic and northern Ghana, where it was an old traditional country and traditional Cultural practice of different ethnic groups (UNICEF, 2011, Odoi, 2015). The highest prevalence rates are found in Somalia and Djibouti, where FGM is practically universal (UNICEF, 2011).
FGM is widespread in Nigeria, and Nigeria has the largest population in the world with the highest absolute number of cases of FGM, accounting for approximately a quarter of the 115 to 130 million estimated circumcised women worldwide (UNICEF, 2011). In Nigeria, FGM has the highest prevalence in the Southeast (77%) (in adult women), followed by the Southeast (68%) and the Southwest (65%), but, paradoxically, it is practiced to a lesser extent in a most extreme form in the North (UNICEF, 2011) Adegoke, 2015). Nigeria has a population of 150 million people, with a female population of 52% (Adegoke, 2015). The national prevalence rate of FGM in adult women is 41%. Prevalence rates are declining more and more in young age groups, and 37% of circumcised women want FGM to not persist (UNICEF, 2011). 61% of women who do not want FGM said it was a bad and harmful tradition, and 22% said it was against religion. Other reasons explained were medical complications (22%), painful personal experiences (10%) and the opinion that female genital mutilation is against the dignity of women (10%) (UNICEF, 2011). However, there is still considerable support for the practice in areas where it is deeply rooted in local tradition. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness on female genital mutilation and its implication to reproductive health among mothers in Amaifeke in Orlu local government area, Imo State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The overall purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge and practice of female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State. The specific objectives are as follows;
- To determine the level of knowledge on female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State
- To ascertain the level of practice of female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State
- To ascertain the factors that influence the practice of female genital mutilation in Imo State
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions are formulated based on the objectives and statement of problem to include;
- What is the level of knowledge on female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State?
- What is the level of practice of female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State?
- What are the factors that influence the practice of female genital mutilation in Imo State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypothesis is tested at .05 level of significance;
- HO1: Knowledge of implication to reproductive health does not significantly affect the practice of female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of great importance and relevance to community leaders and individuals as it will convince them of the need to improve traditional values for healthier living for individuals and especially mothers as well eliminate practice of female genital mutilation to individuals’ health. Also, study will be relevant to non-governmental organizations which are interested in empowering women and individuals to address key issues of concern to fundamental rights and well-being. Also, this study will be of great importance to the government in the formulation of policy to address the practice of female genital mutilation. Finally, information gathered from this study will serve as a source of literature and guide for future research and as well serve as empirical reference for further studies.
1.7 Scope of study
The focus of this study is to assess the knowledge and practice of female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State. Imo State will be used as the study area, and mothers with children under 15 years of age as the respondents for data collection and analysis.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The study had some limitations as the researcher faced some complications during the s data collection process. Firstly, only one community in the local government was covered due to shortage of time for the research work. Secondly, some of the respondents were reluctant in filling out the questionnaire and some had language barriers and involved lots of explanation to aid the understanding of the questionnaire. Finally, time constraint was a major limitation during this study due to other academic works as well as access to relevant materials to facilitate the study.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
This refers to the awareness of the existence and operation of a concept or phenomenon such as female genital mutilation in this study.
Refers to the incidence of female genital mutilation in this study.
Female Genital Mutilation:
(FGM) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as all procedures which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs, whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:
- Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
- Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of the Study
This study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of female genital mutilation among mothers with children under 15 years of age in Imo State. A descriptive research design was employed and data was collected using questionnaire, data analysis was systematically done and the findings showed that pain and haemorrhage are the commonest harmful effects they know about. This study also showed that ignorance and culture are the commonest factors that influence their knowledge on the harmful effects of female genital mutilation.
Based on the result, it was concluded that majority of the women have knowledge of female genital mutilation. The commonest harmful effects of female genital mutilation that the respondents know of are pain and haemorrhage. Therefore their knowledge on the harmful effects especially the long term effects are poor. Ignorance and culture are the main factors influencing their knowledge on the harmful effects of female genital mutilation.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher put forward the following recommendations.
- Campaign against female genital mutilation with emphasis on its long term harmful effect like infertility, infection and risks during labour should made known to the public especially in the grass roots as culture is the major contributing factors to the practice of female genital mutilation.
- The legal and judiciary wing of government should enact laws at all levels (from federal to state to local governments) to eradicate this practice; this law should be enforced at all levels.
- Education to the individuals within on female genital mutilation seemed to be lacking, therefore there is need to increase education to the individuals within Amaifeke community to ensure that the rate of female genital mutilation is lowered. This would also impact on the culture and tradition reduction within the region and embrace positive culture that would not infringe the rights of the individuals.
- Nurses and health workers should utilize very opportunity to educate women and the general public on the harmful effects of female genital mutilation to improve their knowledge and help reduce the practice. This would also promote reproductive health among the womenfolk and society members
The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.
Quick & Simple…
Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:
|Account No.: 0811003731|
|Name: Samphina Academy|
|Account Type: Current|
Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card
FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | 08143831497
- Payment Details
- Email Address
- Knowledge And Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Mothers With Children Under 15 Years Of Age
The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | Terms and Conditions Apply
You may also like:
Knowledge And Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Mothers With Children Under 15 Years Of Age
This research material “Knowledge And Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Mothers With Children Under 15 Years Of Age” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.
The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.
samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Knowledge And Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Mothers With Children Under 15 Years Of Age” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.
How to defend your research work
This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:
1. Prepare For Questions:
If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Knowledge And Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Mothers With Children Under 15 Years Of Age“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.
2. Strong Summary:
Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.
3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:
Not knowing your topic “Knowledge And Practice Of Female Genital Mutilation Among Mothers With Children Under 15 Years Of Age” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.
Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.
5 . Listen:
Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.