Application Of GIS In Mapping The Locational Pattern Of Hotels In Owerri Municipal

Surveying and Geoinformatics

Application Of GIS In Mapping The Locational Pattern Of Hotels In Owerri Municipal


Abstract


The word hotel means an establishment that provides lodging and usually meals, entertainment and various personal services for the public. The hotel industry is an important special providing sector in many countries especially those attracting a large tourist trade. Evidence of hotels and the hospitality industry has been recorded as far back as biblical times when Mary and Joseph arrived in Bethlehem during the census. As the bible depicts, Mary and Joseph were refused accommodation because there was no room in the inn. Since the beginning of time, people have travelled for commerce, religion, family, health, immigration, education, tourism, and recreation. Because of these, there has been rapid growth and development in the hospitality industry which includes the growth of hotels.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The word hotel means an establishment that provides lodging and usually meals, entertainment and various personal services for the public. The hotel industry is an important special providing sector in many countries especially those attracting a large tourist trade. Evidence of hotels and the hospitality industry has been recorded as far back as biblical times when Mary and Joseph arrived in Bethlehem during the census. As the bible depicts, Mary and Joseph were refused accommodation because there was no room in the inn. Since the beginning of time, people have travelled for commerce, religion, family, health, immigration, education, tourism, and recreation. Because of these, there has been rapid growth and development in the hospitality industry which includes the growth of hotels.

The industry is important because it contributes to the growth of an economy by providing a lot of employment opportunities to the people, funding a large percentage of a country’s Gross Domestic Product GDP), thereby helping to raise the national income and by earning foreign currencies through the goods and services provided to foreign visitors, thus improving the balance of payments (Bakar et al 2005). There is no doubting that the hospitality industry is the livewire of tourism at all levels.

As a result of these developments, the need for hotel mapping arises. This involves the process of analyzing the spatial location of hotels with their attributes and representing this information with a suitable scale on a hard or soft medium using GIS approach.

Hotels are spatially located in different areas for different reasons. The location of hotels in a particular area to a large extent is influenced by the presence of major tourist centers. The issue of spatial distribution of hotels and their attributes requires the use of digital mapping and Geographic Information System (GIS).

Hotel mapping is one of the major areas where GIS has always been applied. In view of the challenges posed by the global population exposition and its attendant stress on scarce available resources, the proper management of hotels with respect to its available faculty to serve the public is a problem that can be solved using the capability of GIS. This was done by first obtaining the map of owerri municipal being the study area from satellite imagery and then identifying the geographic locations of the hotels in the study area with a handheld GPS device reading of the geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) and the attributes data was obtained by generating a questionnaire to each hotel on their services. The data collected was processed using softwares like Google earth, ILWIS, Microsoft excel, Microsoft access and Arc GIS.


1.2 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the spatial distribution of hotels and their attributes in Owerri Municipal L.G.A in Imo state using GIS approach and to represent the information through mapping. The attributes are recorded in a database table. The hospitality industry provides services for people who are away from home regardless of whether it is for long or short period of time. These services can vary according to the specific needs of both the person away from home and the organization operating those services. The attribute database could enable hotel providers to select a particular hotel with the required attributes or services for a client.


1.3 Statement of the Problem

Hotel mapping providers using cross mapping tables claim nearly 100% accuracy, travel businesses have no way to validate this. And the companies fail to maintain their coverage ratio. Currently/ the industry average covers around 60_65% of a suppliers inventory. Meaning more than 35% is not mapped without anyone knowing about it. Travel companies also don’t receive insights into why some properties are not mapped leaving no room for improvements. This lack of visibility and low coverage significantly reduces the inventory available for sale.

In the past few years, there has been rapid development of hotels in the Owerri municipal axis and some of these hotels have not been mapped, therefore there is a need to provide a revised or updated database of the hotels in Owerri Municipal. Some other hotels have been renovated with added services, so the study would enable a creation of an attribute database indicating the current services these hotels render. By Geocoding their spatial locations and attributes using GIS approach would categorically solve these problems.


1.4 Aim and Objectives

1.4.1 Aim

The aim of this study is to use digital mapping and geographic information system (GIS) in accessing the spatial distribution, location and attributes of hotels in Owerri municipal L.G.A in Imo state Nigeria.

1.4.2 Objectives

The aim of this study can be achieved with the following objectives:

  1. To identify the location of hotels within the study area.
  2. To obtain an updated base map of the study area.
  3. To geocode the spatial locations of hotels using GIS and making a locational network analysis on the hotels distribution pattern.
  4. To create an attribute database that is updated on the current services as operated by these hotels.

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the result of this project work will assist in providing the required data so as to ascertain the spatial distributional pattern and the attributes of hotels in the study area. It also entails making a network analysis and buffer analysis to check for the route and the distance to a particular hotel and to carry out a spatial query in order to know where the Hotels are in relation to one another.


1.6 Scope of Study

The scope of the study is limited to Owerri municipal L.G.A in Imo state, having an area of 58km2. The project covers the following: office reconnaissance, mission planning, satellite image capture of the study area, Traversing, Geocoding, georeferencing and graphical digitizing, data analysis, processing and presentation. The softwares used are: Microsoft access, Microsoft excel, Microsoft power point, Google Earth and Arc GIS.


1.7 Study Area

Owerri Municipal is a Local Government Area in Imo state Nigeria. Its headquarters is in the city of Owerri. It is located between latitude of 01o 26’26.15”N to 1o26’35.47”N and longitude of 09o08’402”E to 09o08’268”E. it has an area of 58km2 and a population of 127,213 according to the 2006 census and an estimated population of 172,600 in 2016(source: National Population Commission of Nigeria). The postal code of the area is 460. Owerri city sits at the intersection of roads from Port Harcourt, Onitcha, Aba, Orlu, Okigwe and Umuahia. It is also the trade center for palm products, corn(maize), yams and cassava. Eke ukwu Owerri market is the main market in Owerri municipal. Owerri municipal has an urban setting with one autonomous community made up of 5 indigenous kindred (Owerri nchi ise) viz: Umuororonjo, Amawom, Umuonyeche, Umuodu and Umuoyima under the rulership of one paramount traditional ruler. There are about 175 hotels in Owerri with clustering hotels within the new Owerri axis; World Bank area, and Port Harcourt road.

Fig 1.0 Study area map (Delineated from OSGOF maps, Nigerian shapefile, 2014)


1.8 Definition of Terms

1. Attribute:

Information about a spatial feature. For example, attributes about a school may be the name, level of education and number of students.

2. Base Map:

This refers to a collection of GIS data and/or orthorectified imagery that form the background setting for a map. The function of base map is to provide a background detail necessary to orient the location of the map.

3. Coordinate Geometry:

A method of defining geometric features through the input of bearing and distance measurements.

4. Database:

Is a collection of related data and stored in a given file.

5. Database Management System:

Is a system or software providing for the input, storage and retrieval of data in a database.

6. Digitizing:

Digitizing is the process of converting geographic data either from a hard copy or a scanned image into vector data by tracing the features.

7. Geographic Coordinates:

Location of features on the earth’s surface using a coordinate system of degrees of latitude and longitude.

8. Georeference:

To establish the relationship between page coordinates on a planar map and real world coordinates.

9. Network Analysis:

Is a type of data analysis that allows us to find a part from one place to another.

10. Buffer Analysis:

Allows us to analyze the relationship of objects based on distance.

11. Spatial Overlay:

Allows us to determine the relationship between different geographic features


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