Digital Conversion, Map Revision And Update Of Owerri Municipal And Environs Imo State
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The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), satellite imagery data acquisition technique, especially high resolution satellite imagery has great capabilities for mapping, digitizing and revision of map. These technique have been used in various times and at different stages to study characteristics of features monitor natural and physical phenomena and also produce digital maps of different place of different types. In this map, Owerri Street guide and Google imagery was used to digitalize, revise/update and produce the revise map of Owerri municipal and environs, Imo State Nigeria.
The methodology adopted for the research was an integrated and conceptualized approach consisting of digital image processing and cartographic procedures such that Owerri street guide map was scanned with the AO scanner, geo-referenced using computer softwaresLand Development Desktop and also digitized, while field work was carried out for the purpose of ground truthing/field completion and annotation. Thereafter, the scanned geo-referenced and digitized Owerri street guide map was then superimposed unto the satellite imagery. Thus, the digitalized and revised map of Owerri Municipal and environ map is produced.
Table Of Contents
Table of contents
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Aim and objectives of the study
1.4 Scope and limitation of study
1.5 Significance of this project
1.6 Study area
1.7 Justification of the study
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Map revision
2.2 Brief history of GIS
2.2.1 Components of GIS
2.2.2 Application of GIS / uses of GIS
2.2.3 Functions of GIS
2.3 Satellite imagery
2.3.1 History of satellite imagery
2.4 Resolution and data
2.6 Scale and accuracy
3.1 Methodology adopted
3.1.1 Data requirement
3.1.2 Materials for data acquisition/instruments
3.1.3 Data acquisition
3.1.5 Editing/correction and final production/printing
3.3 Maps and cartography
4.0 Presentation of results and analysis
4.1 Base map
4.2 Satellite imagery
4.3 Rasterization/image preparation
4.5 Field verification ground truthing
4.6 On-screen digitizing
4.7 Overlay method
4.8 Deduction and comparison
5.0 summary, problem encountered, conclusion and recommendations
5.2 Problems encountered
1.1 Background Of The Study
Maps are graphical representation that gives information of place, features in a particular environment on paper. They are representation of the real world drawn on a flat surface but many times smaller than the place itself. Every culture in all part of the world makes and uses maps. For planning, navigation etc. The art and science of making maps is known as cartography.
Cartography concerns the art, science and techniques of making maps or charts. Conventionally, the term map is used for terrestrial area and chart for marine areas, but they are both maps in the sense the word is used here. In statistical or analytical fields, charts provide the pictorial representation of statistical data, but this does not form part of the discussion in this write-up rather we are concern in digital conversion (revisio/update) of map.
According to Bjrn Kellsrom (2007), a map is a geographical representation of a portion of the earth’s surface drawn to scale. It uses colours, symbols and labels to represent features found on the ground. Much of town planning is done using maps, therefore any operation requires a supply of maps; however, the finest maps available are worthless, the map user knows how to read them (Kraak and Ormeling, 1996). Map making or cartography has been greatly assisted by technological advancement since World War II. The most important and easier approach has been the use of technological advancement that create room for better techniques to capture data of physical features without touching them. These techniques include aerial photography remote sensing and satellite imagery which has reduced error in determining the exact location of paint on the earth surface.
Digital conversion and revision of map is the process of using a computer and the relevant software in map production in such a way that map production is enhanced and can be understood by its readers not minding their intelligence.
The concept of revision is to keep all published maps up-to-date with changes taking place on the environment; thus making maps maintain their usefulness. The process of maintaining maps in an up-to-date condition is known as revision. The task of map revision can be quite immense notably in those areas where changes are likely to be extensive and rapid, notably urban and highly developed areas.
The term base map is see often in GIS and refers to a collection of GIS data and or ortho-rectified imagery that form the background setting detail necessary to orient the location of the map. Base maps also add to the aesthetic appeal of a map (Caitlin Dempsy; GIS Lounge, 2011)
One produced; this graphic image (map) becomes static, therefore it should be expected that a map may be partly outdated by the time of its publication and it may have to continue in this state for a period of time (Krentes, 1973). Thus, in order to ensure that all maps are up-to-date with all the information and changes which may have taken place with respect to time, the need for map revision and up-to-date will not be overlooked. Therefore, it is of a great importance that maps are been updated in order for its relevance to be appreciated.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
In most part of the country and in Imo State in particular, most base maps produced several years back and majority of new artificial features such as buildings of different purposes (bank, Hotel, Schools etc.) and roads etc. between when the map is produced and the present times is not properly accounted for and depicted. Thus, making such existing map obsolete and out dated and these maps appear in analogue form. Therefore, no new information can be extracted from the maps like street names, building petrol stations, churches, schools, hotels, fast foods, recreational centers, commercial areas etc. which leads to estimation of expected revenue by the planning authority. Map revision is essential here because once a map is produced, the graphic image is static and there is a constant need to provide the map with information on changes at the same time reducing defect. Hence, there is need to digitize and update the analogue map of Owerri, Imo State using GIS technique in order to ensure proper planning and development of the area.
1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study
The aim of the project is to produce an updated map of Owerri municipal and Environ using digital techniques.
- To use digital technique to update Owerri map.
- To project this map into a given coordinate system.
- Acquisition of base map of the study area
- Digitizing the acquired maps
- Demonstrating through various analyses, the potential of GIS in the revision and update of the map.
1.4 Scope And Limitation Of Study
This project involves the digital revision and update of Owerri map in GIS environment. The scope also outline reconnaissance, acquisition satellite imagery data covering the study area, geo-referencing/rectifying of the scanned Owerri Street Guide map using Arc GIS software, vectorizing the features in the imagery within the extent of the area, cartographic embellishment, initial printing of the updated map.
The work is capital intensive bond requires some amount of man power but less compare to convention technique which is not readily available. Also, it was not easy for the researcher to acquire the coordinate of places. This work has been limited to the use of satellite imagery, old Owerri Street Guide and the use of ground control point from GPS.
1.5 Significance Of This Project
Maps are produce to show natural and artificial features information especially to visitors and researchers, considering this, there is need to produce maps from data that can portray reality as accurate as possible, in order for the rapid nature of changes is to be accommodated in the map. GIS, an acceptable method of keeping inventory of the earth’s resources offers such powerful data gathering tool. When digitally acquired data is used to produce a map, it will take a new form, encourage new uses and users, and cartographic visualization can be possible with adequate software image manipulation and analysis can be achieved. The result of the research will reveal the impact of digital mapping. It will also assist other researchers in their work and serve as reference material.
1.6 Study Area
Imo State came into existence in 1976. The main cities in Imo State are Owerri, Orlu and Okigwe. The local language is Igbo and their religion is Christianity. Imo State lies within latitude 005o31’N and 7o15’N and longitude 6o50’E and 7o25’E with area of about 5,100sq km.
The study area can be found on the Owerri Street Guide of 1987 by Survey Division, Ministry of Land, Survey and Urban Planning Owerri.
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Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
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Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
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Use, Your Gestures:
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Prepare For The Questions:
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