Statistical Analysis Of Prevalence Malnutrition On Children Zero To Five Years

Project and Seminar Material for Statistics

Statistical Analysis Of Prevalence Malnutrition On Children Zero To Five Years


Abstract


Malnutrition is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The main aim of the research work is to carry out a statistical analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition on children Zero to five years. Methods. This is a descriptive study which seeks to ascertain the strategies for reducing malnutriation in children from Zero to Five years. A sample population consisting of mothers of newly born babies from zero to 5 years will be used to collect primary data using the structured questionnaire and interview as research instrument. The sample size determined for this study was one hundred (100) respondents. The reliability co-efficient showed that the instrument is fairly accurate and stable. Results. Findings from the study review that nutritional value of children in Nigeria is low and this especially affects children aged zero to five year. The study will educate the entire pregnant mothers in Nigeria as it will educate them on how to feed before child birth, which can have long-lasting impacts on health.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

The issue of malnutrition has become a household name among families with children from zero to five years. It is evident that the nutritional status of children is widely regarded as one of the well-known indicators of economic development of that particular region in question.

There has been high level of neglect of children by most parents’ reason being as a result of low family income, lack of parent exposure and poor implementation of infrastructural facilities such as good hospital that sees for children like of pipe borne water etc.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that malnutrition accounts for 54 percent of child mortality worldwide, about 1 million children. Another estimate also by WHO states that childhood underweight is the cause for about 35% of all deaths of children under the age of five years worldwide. The main causes are unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene, factors related to society and poverty, diseases, maternal factors, gender issues and overall poverty (Bhutta et al, 2008). The nutritional status of children under five (5) years of age is usually measured as weight-for-age, weight for height and height for age indexes. The common nutritional status of children under 5 years old in each region such as underweight, stunning and wasting are considered as nutritional disorders.

The evaluation of these criteria reflects the general health status of that region. Malnutrition is a clinical syndrome which the infant or child deviates from the main pattern of growth, the growth curve is downward and constantly locates under the curve of 3% of the height and weight (Nakhshab M, Nasiri H, 2009).

The malnutrition often occurs in the first years of life when the caloric intake is not able to provide the metabolic needs of the body. Consequently, the stored nutrients in the tissues will be consumed to preserve the life (Arezomaniance S, 2005). In children, protein-energy malnutrition is defined by measurements that fall below 2 standard deviations under the normal weight for age (underweight), height for age (stunting) and weight for height (wasting). Wasting indicates recent weight loss, whereas stunting usually results from chronic weight loss.

The primary malnutrition in children occurs due to socioeconomic factors and lack of food. The secondary malnutrition is associated with the diseases with increased need for calories, calorie loss, and reduction of calorie intake or a combination of these three modes. It may be caused by low food intake or impaired absorption of nutrients.

Prenatal malnutrition and early life growth patterns can alter metabolism and physiological patterns and have lifelong effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Children who are undernourished are more likely to be short in adulthood, have lower educational achievement and economic status, and give birth to smaller infants (Bhutta et al, 2008). Children often face malnutrition during the age of rapid development, which can have long-lasting impacts on health.

The World Health Organisation estimated in 2008 that globally, half of all cases of malnutrition in children under five were caused by inadequate food intake, unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene. This link is often due to repeated diarrhoea and intestinal worm infections as a result of inadequate sanitation. However, the relative contribution of diarrhea to malnutrition and in turn stunting remains controversial. In almost all countries, the poorest quintile of children has the highest rate of malnutrition. However, inequalities in malnutrition between children of poor and rich families vary from country to country, with studies finding large gaps in Peru and very small gaps in Egypt. In 2000, rates of child malnutrition were much higher in low income countries (36 percent) compared to middle income countries (12 percent) and the United States (1 percent). Studies in Bangladesh in 2009 found that the mother’s literacy, low household income, higher number of siblings, less access to mass media, less supplementation of diets, unhygienic water and sanitation are associated with chronic and severe malnutrition in children.


1.2 Statement of Research Problem

What really instigated the study was the increased mortality of children under the ages of five (5) as a result of malnutrition; about 50 percent of the citizens in Nigeria are low income earners, it is evident from World Bank found that, from 1970 to 2000, the number of malnourished children decreased by 20 percent in developing countries. Some the other problems discovered are in the areas of lack of iodine intake by pregnant mothers before child birth, lack of minerals, calcium vitamins has seen to be a major clog on the wheels of child growth and development. In Nigeria today, there has been lack of nutritional education in most of the hospitals to educate pregnant mothers on how to feed before child birth.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study

The main aim of the research work is to carry out a statistical analysis of the prevalence of malnutrition on children Zero to five years.

Other specific aims of the study include:

  1. To examine the effect and causes of malnutrition among children from Zero to Five years of age
  2. To examine the relationship between malnutrition and child mortality rate in Nigeria
  3. To identify the strategies for reducing malnutrition in children from zero to five years
  4. To examine the effect of parent income on child care and malnutrition among children from Zero to Five years old
  5. To proffer solution to the above stated problems

1.4 Research Questions

The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions are stated below as follows:

  1. What is the effect and causes of malnutrition among children from Zero to Five years of age?
  2. What is the relationship between malnutrition and child mortality rate in Nigeria?
  3. What are the strategies for reducing malnutrition in children from zero to five years?
  4. Does parent income have any effect on child care and malnutrition among children from Zero to Five years old?

1.5 Statement of Research Hypothesis

  1. H0: there is no significant relationship between malnutrition and child mortality rate in Nigeria
    H1: there is significant relationship between malnutrition and child mortality rate in Nigeria
  2. H0: length for age and weight for age does not influence mortality rate among children from Zero to Five years as a result of malnutrition
    H1: length for age and weight for age influences mortality rate among children from Zero to Five years as a result of malnutrition

1.6 Significance of Study

The study on the prevalence of malnutrition on children Zero to five years will be of immense benefit to the entire pregnant mothers in Nigeria as it will educate them on the effect of malnutrition on child mortality rate. The study will also educate them on how to take care of their child at the early age of growth and development. The study will educate on the causes, prevalence and strategies for reducing malnutrition in children from zero to five years. Finally the study will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study on prevalence of malnutrition on children Zero to five years will cover areas on the causes and the prevalence of malnutrition in children. It will also cover the strategies for reducing malnutrition in children from zero to five years of age


1.8 Limitation of Study

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Malnutrition:

lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat

Mortality Rate:

Death, especially on a large scale

Prevalence:

The fact or condition of being prevalent; commonness


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of Findings

The objective of the study was to know to examine the causes of malnutrition in children from zero to five years, the prevalence of malnutrition in children from zero to five years, to identify the strategies for reducing malnutrition in children from zero to five years.

Findings from the study review that nutritional value of children in Nigeria is low and this especially effects children aged zero to five years. Some of the respondents stated that there are no adequate strategies for reducing malnutrition in Nigeria.


5.2 Conclusion

Early life growth malnutrition in children from zero to five years can alter metabolism and physiological patterns and have lifelong effects on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Children who are undernourished are more likely to be short in adulthood, have lower educational achievement and economic status.


5.3 Recommendation

The following recommendation is made from this study;

  1. Efforts must be made by both parents and the government to provide proper nutrition for children from zero to five years
  2. The early life growth of any child is between zero to five years, this is when the child’s system is developing and for this reason, strategies such as prompt medical services, low price of babies food should be implemented to reduce the level of malnutrition among children.

How To Get The Complete Material For Statistical Analysis Of Prevalence Malnutrition On Children Zero To Five Years


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The Complete Material will be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make a Mobile Transfer or POS Payment of ₦3,000 to any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current
Zenith BankAccount No.: 1225513212
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 80 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  • Payment Details
  • Email Address 
  • Statistical Analysis Of Prevalence Malnutrition On Children Zero To Five Years

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your Email Address After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Statistical Analysis Of Prevalence Malnutrition On Children Zero To Five Years” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Statistical Analysis Of Prevalence Malnutrition On Children Zero To Five Years” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.