Route Survey Of The Stretch Of Road From Oriawo Along Ogbomoso Road, Oyo To School Of Science, Sabo Oyo Town, Atiba Local Government Area, Oyo State
The project was focused on the execution of route surveying for the purpose of road reconstruction from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Stations were selected along the existing route at regular intervals as in the specifications
Theodolite traverse was run over stations, while levels were observed along the longitudinal and cross-sections of the traverse lines. All data were gathered with effective orientation from the controls, these were used to produce the plans (with appropriate scale) showing horizontal alignment, profile and cross-sections.
Tables Of Contents
- Title Page
- List Of Figure
- List Of Tables
- 1.1 Background To The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of Problems
- 1.3.0 Aim And Objectives Of The Study
- 1.3.1 Aim
- 1.3.2 Objectives
- 1.5 Scope Of The Project
- 1.6 Personnel
- 1.7 Study Area
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Reconnaissance
- 2.2 Preliminary Survey
- 2.3 Location Survey
- 2.4 Office Location:
- 3.1 Reconnaissance
- 3.1.1 Office Planning
- 3.1.2 Field Reconnaissance
- 3.2 Data Acquisition
- 3.2.1 Equipment Used
- 3.2.2 Test Of Instrument
- 184.108.40.206 Level Instrument Test (Two Peg Test)
- 3.2.3 Control Check
- 220.127.116.11 Selection Of Stations
- 18.104.22.168 Monumentation
- 3.2.4 Field Obsevation
- 22.214.171.124 Angular Measurement
- 126.96.36.199 Linear Measurements
- 188.8.131.52 Leveling
- 184.108.40.206 Detailing
4.0 Data Processing And Result Analysis
- 4.1 Field Books Reductions
- 4.1.1 Horizontal Angle Reduction
- 4.1.2 Vertical Angle Reduction
- 4.1.3 Linear Measurement Reduction
- 4.2.1 Forward Computation
- 220.127.116.11 Bearing Reduction
- 18.104.22.168 Correction To Bearing
- 22.214.171.124 Coordinates Reduction
- 126.96.36.199 Coordinates Adjustments
- 4.2.2 Back Computation
- 4.2.3 Leveling Computation And Adjustments
- 188.8.131.52 Leveling Adjustment
- 4.2.4 Accuracy
- 184.108.40.206 Angular Accuracy
- 220.127.116.11 Leveling Accuracy
- 18.104.22.168 Linear Accuracy
- 4.3 Result Analysis
- 4.4 Extract Of Result
- 4.6 Information Presentation (Analog And Digital)
- 4.6.1 Plan Production
- 4.6.2 Manual Plotting
- 4.6.3 Digital Plotting
5.0 Summary, Recommendation And Conclusion
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Problems Encountered
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendations
List of Figure
- Figure 1.1: Study Area diagram
- Figure 3.1 Recce Diagram
- Figure 3.2: Leveling instrument set up mid-way (first set -up)
- Figure 3.3: Leveling instrument set up( second set up)
- Figure 3.4 Initial control check observations
- Figure 3.6 A typical monument used
- Figure 3.7: Longitudinal sections leveling.
- Figure 3.8: Cross sectional leveling.
- Fig.: 3.9 – Illustration of detailing by tacheometry method
List of Tables
- Table 3.1: Coordinates of existing ground controls used
- Table 3.2 Collimation test
- Table 3.3: Initial control check observation.
- Table 3.4: Back computation of initial control used
- Closing control check observation.
- Back computation of initial control used
- Table 4.1 Sample of Horizontal angle reduction
- Table 4.1 Back computation of traverse pegs
1.1 Background To The Study
Engineering Surveying is one of the branches of surveying which from the general express for any survey work carried out in connection with construction engineering and building project, it is a large scale topographical map survey which the basis for design of engineering works such as highways, railways, canals, tunnels, dams, pipelines and transmission lines.
In the word of engineering and environmental studies, surveying has been recognized as the inevitable operation been described as be the bedrock of every meaningful development. The greater part of its responsibility is seen from the various types of surveying which are all geared toward promoting route ways, convenience, accessibility and spatial declination of both natural and social environment. In addition, surveying means the activities of planning, designing, constructions, development and rehabilitation of roads, depending on the survey data required by the surveyor.
Route survey which is an aspect of engineering survey may be defined as the survey operation that is done for the establishment of the horizontal and vertical alignment of transportation facilities. It involved: planning, design and setting out of any route such as railways, highways, pipelines and canals etc. as obtained by a surveyor and it also involved the proper assessment of natural and man-made features.
In addition, this type of survey should be applied when there is need for alignment, expansion, or rehabilitation at any existing route (road) e.g. for traffic purposes. The reason is that route survey provides a plan/map that shows the alignment, details, profile and cross sectional leveling which depicts the nature of the terrain of a given strip of land which serves the purpose of location, design and construction of route networks.
Good road network is one of the basic amenities needed by human being as movement is one of the characteristics of living things. There are needs for people to move from one place to the other and transportation of goods and services. Therefore for any meaningful development in a country, good road is a must.
1.2 Significant Of The Project
It was discovered that the route from Oyun to olorun village moro Local government Ilorin, Kwara State, had been badly eroded and full of potholes; also, the road is found to be too narrow and needed to be extended considering the volume of traffic plying the road. Rehabilitation of this road should be carried out in other to increase its carrying capacity thereby increase the physical development and human activities therein. Due to these, certain information about the road must be acquired which calls for route survey so as to get the baseline data necessary for the road design.
The main aim of this project is:
To carry-out Route Survey of Oyun-Oloru road in Moro local government area, Ilorin, Kwara State
In actualization of the said aim of the project, the following objectives
Were followed sequentially:
- Reconnaissance which include office planning and field reconnaissance.
- Identification of existing features and adjoining roads.
- Stability of the ground controls to be use for orientation.
- Determination of centre line and marking of chainages along the centre line at an interval of 25m.
- Marking out some selected points for the cross-sectioning at intervals of 3m to the right and left on the profile and also the edges of drainage was marked.
- Leveling to determine the height of some selected points along the road.
- Detailing by the use of a total station Mato NTS352R
- Plan production (graphical representation of the surveyed road way) drawn with appropriate scale.
- Reports write up.
1.4 Project Specifications
The following are the specification to be ascertained in the project:
Traverse must commence on three coordinated (known) controls and closed on another set of three coordinated controls which must be confirmed undisturbed by necessary measurement (control checks).
Third order theodolite traverse must be run along the route on all turning points at one zero observation and the angular difference from both faces should not be more than thirty seconds (30″), the angular misclosure is determined by 30″√n,
Where ‘n’ is the total number of station observed.
Establishing traverse points by using pegs together with nails and bottle corks.
Spirit leveling must commence on a known benchmark and closed back on another known benchmark. Formulae for its misclosure are ±24mm√k, where ‘k’ is the total distance covered in kilometers.
Leveling must be observed at every 25m intervals on the centre line and at 5m intervals on both sides of the centre line for the cross sectioning. Edges of drainage at both sides should be heightened.
Fixing of relevant features to enhance assessment and necessary composition for good interpretation of plan.
Setting out curve by using deflection angle method within third other survey.
The accuracy of the project must fall within the order of the project.
1.5 Scope Of The Project
The entire project covered the following:-
Reconnaissance (both office planning and field reconnaissance).
- Selection of stations.
- Traverse angular observation and data recording.
- Linear measurement with the aid of Mato NTS352R total station.
- Spirit leveling of traverse centre line and adjacent sides (longitudinal or profile and cross sectioning).
- Fixing of details by tacheometry method.
Computations to determine:
- Horizontal coordinates (i.e. x and y coordinates)
- Vertical coordinates (i.e. z coordinates) by level reduction.
- Setting out angles and distance for the curve.
Data analysis i.e. comparing result obtained with the required accuracy.
Data presentation :
- Production of horizontal alignment (i.e. plan showing existing features and the propose route).
- Production of longitudinal section plan
- Production of cross section plan
- Project report writing: – This involves writing of detail report in connection with entire project done in conformity with the outline given by the project supervisor.
1.7 Study Area
The project site is the route from Oyun to olorun village moro Local Government area Ilorin, Kwara State. It cover approximately 3.km extent of land.
5.0 Summary, Recommendation And Conclusion
The reconnaissance, which was the main planning, was carefully carried out because of its importance to good execution of any survey project or work. Having carried out the reconnaissance, six (6) second order control stations were located and used as connection along the given route. The total number of nineteen (19) stations excluding the controls where the angles and distances were determine by a closed traverse method. All these measurements and the observations were carried out in third order traverse method.
The prominent features closer to each station along the project site were fixed by chain survey method as specified. All necessary reductions and computations, which include forward and backward computation, leveling computation, and calculation of curve, were done respectively in accordance with survey rules, regulation, departmental and project instructions.
Finally, plans showing location survey, profiles and cross sections and curve design were drawn to scale for visualization.
5.2 Problems Encountered
There were a lot of problems faced during the execution of this project, problem in locating the closing control which takes a lot of time and not easily identify as the sand of the ground had covered some of the controls and gave us problem in their locations, traffic to and fro on the site also constitute a lot of problem.
Despite the encountered problems during the execution of this project with the respect to the instructions, the result obtained were of accepted accuracy, these were achieve due to the precautions taken on the field during the execution. Also, at the end of the project, I was able to acquire a commendable practical techniques and skills owing to the fact that this project has exposed me to many aspect of surveying tasks and as well, the aim and the objectives of the project were achieved.
I hereby recommended that this kind of project should continue because it covers a lot of aspect in surveying and it will even put the school in position to actualize its missions which is to produce qualified and resourceful professionals.
In addition, the school management should make digital instruments available for students to execute their project conveniently. The use of computer should be intensified for the computation, plotting and typing of the project so as to enhance the quality of the project and as well to supply electric power during project.
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