Accessing The Implication Of Hazard Facing Journalist Practice In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Accessing The Implication Of Hazard Facing Journalist Practice In Nigeria


Media hazards is one of the major issues in journalism but attracted less attention in the last few decades especially now that democracy is waxing stronger in Nigeria making it appears as if there were no hazard any more. The focus of this research is to examine the hazards (i.e. problems) facing journalism practice in Nigeria particularly in among journalists in Abuja. Media practitioners and media owners face different challenges at one time or the other in the cause of carrying out their official duties and few of such is killing, kidnapping, threaten, accident, embarrassment, humiliation among others.

Survey research method was used, of which 200 copies of questionnaires were administered to respondents who were purposively selected among journalists in NUJ chapel in Abuja. Findings shown that killing, threaten and kidnapping are the major hazards to journalism practices in Nigeria in general. It is therefore recommended that further studies on this research, should be extended to the problems and prospects of journalism and the role of broadcast media in preventing media hazards while regular training be organized for the member of the fourth estate of the realm in Nigeria

Chapter One


Background to the Study

The press is a moulder of the society. Although this fact has been lashed with numerous criticisms, we cannot deny the fact that the press shapes the society. Most journalists are aware of this, so they are determined, even to the extent of sacrificing their lives, to give the society what it desires and what it needs. The reporter who is scampering to meet a politician who has just alighted from an airplane; the reporter who is on a wired boat sailing into a remote mangrove to find out the extent of damage flood has wrecked in an area is trying to satisfy the society by informing the members of the society on what is happening around them. The function of news gathering and news dissemination has not been a rosy one for the journalists, from the inception of journalism and newspaper publication in Nigeria.

There has been a cat and mouse relationship between the press, society, organisation, politician and the governments of all ages, whether military or civilian, except when the press allows itself to be cajoled, used and manipulated by the government or personal interest of the so called ‘big power” to suit its whims and caprices. However, Wainwright (1992) describes journalism as day-to-day operation of gathering and transmitting new. Therefore, journalism is the sharing of information and ideas using a suitable channel of communication. Longman Dictionary (7th edition) see journalism as the collection and editing of materials of current interest for presentation through the news media.

In a nutshell, is the act of looking for new event and edit the unwanted part before it is served to the public who are the final consumers. The journalists are those that practices journalism in Nigeria and other countries, the journalists are always in problem each time they disseminate the news story that against important personality, most especially the politicians. Therefore, hazard in journalism sphere refers to the various dangers, challenges facing that journalist, reporters, newscasters, camera man, and others who are working in the media organisation are exposed to during the course of their duties. Similarly, press or media practitioners are to injury, killing, kidnapping, rape, assault, beating, threaten, destruction of their property and host of others,

In the history of media most of these hazards emanated from the following source: Government hostility, sinister attack, problem of statement denial, difficulties in separating truth from false hood. unfriendly and hostile people, problem of publishers interest, language barrier prone to road accident, lack of rest etc (Ewuola, 2005).

Olayinka (2015) offers the following as prospects to journalism that have enhanced the gathering, editing, and distribution of media contents to the public via (1) the use of computer, internet, Smartphone, for news gathering (2) ICT for news distribution e.g teleprompter, mobile app (3) Freedom of Information law (4) Feedback e.g Social media, email, SMS, Skype (5) Use of website/youtube. To this end the researcher want to x-ray some the hazards of journalism and some remedies or way out especially as new Freedom of Information Law has become law in Nigeria and in the emerging technology.

Statement of the Problem

There has been a cat and mouse relationship between the press, society, organisation, politician, secret bodies, kidnapper, terrorists, venders and the governments of all ages, whether military or civilian, except when the press allows itself to be cajoled, used and manipulated by the government or personal interest of the so called ‘big power” to suit its whims and caprices.

Journalists are hunters that is been hunted especially in Nigeria and third world countries, this assertion stressed that journalists are hunting for information, secret, facts, figures, idea to be shared to the public while some individuals, government, agent, organization, group e.t.c want their information, activities remain hiding this make press to be become their target and enemy.

However, the work of journalists placed them at the centre of society because they are regarded as the fourth estate of realm as it gather and disseminate information from government, group and individuals. Hence, the research x-ray some of the hazards facing journalists and other media practitioners in the course of the daily assign and highlight some remedies or way out especially as new Freedom of Information Law has become law in Nigeria.

Objectives of the Study

The basic objective of this study is to find out the hazards facing journalists’ effectiveness and solutions in Nigeria. Others are:

  1. To examine some of the hazards facing journalists in Nigeria particularly in LTV.
  2. To examine the influence of hazards on the performance of journalists in LTV.

Research Questions

Below are some of the research questions drawn from the statement of the problem with the view to provide answer to some issues begging for answers.

  1. Is there any hazard facing journalism practice in Nigeria?
  2. Do media hazards have effects on the performance of journalists in Nigeria?

Significance of the Study

This research work deals with the media hazards of Nigerian press. As an academic work which intends to pass through the scientific scrutiny in terms of empirical analysis, it aims to the academic knowledge both for the benefit of the researchers and students of great minds.

This study will no doubt be useful to mass media practitioners in Nigeria and beyond and will help the public appreciate the numerous role of the press in Nigeria so as to enable them rise in defense of the press whenever it is threatened by excessive power.

It is also expected that at the end of this study, the work will update knowledge within the frame work of the study. Particularly, it will assist people on the reasons while journalists need to be more freed and benefit of freedom of information to the press and society at large.

This study will draw the attention of the government to empower the press and ensure journalists security in carrying out their duties. More so, those who want to engage in similar topic will find it very useful by serving as a reference point as very few materials are available on the topic.

Scope of the Study

The study which investigated the hazards of journalism practice in Nigeria was narrowed in scope to LTV . Hence, the geographical location of this study is Lagos. The choice of Lagos Television (LTV) is due to its proximity to the researcher, inadequate time, fund and other considerable logistics. To this end, LTV is selected to represent all mass media in Nigeria while demographic of staff and management of LTV was considered to access the number of staff, educational level, and qualification, working experience, sex, marital status and many more before the administration of research tool. Nevertheless, the finding of the research project would be well generalized

Limitations of the Study

The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.

  • Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
  • Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Operational Definition of Terms


These refer to the dangers or risks faced by workers of Tell magazine in carrying out their activities.


This is the acronym of the Lagos State Television


This refers to some of the factors that encourage the practice of journalism in nigeria such as the new passage of the freedom of information passed some three years ago and ICTs.


These are the reporters, editors and staff that are saddles with news, current affair and related programmes in Lagos State Television (LTV)


This refers to channel of communication such as Tell magazine through which information is conveyed to the public.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation


This researcher has in this work appraised the hazards of journalism and the Nigeria press using Tell magazine as a case study. Relevant literatures in the subject have been reviewed, which tries to showcase the diverse opinions of some authorities on the best ways to prevent journalists from media hazards.

However, if prudent measures are applied, the media hazards of journalism can be prevented.

Chapter one of the research contains the background to the study, statement of the problem, research questions, the significance of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms.

Similarly, in chapter two, many relevant literatures of different authors were used to expose what various writers have done in the area of professional hazards in journalistic prospective in Nigerian.

In chapter three of the study that based on research methodology, survey research method was adopted in which questions were administered.

Chapter four of the project revolved on the data analysis and interpretations of findings. The frequency and percentage method of data analysis was used. This chapter contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study.


As chronicle in the open chapter of this project journalism in Nigeria has become a long way from journalism development in Africa, which exist particularly in such countries as Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and many others. To this extent, journalists in most black Africa countries particularly Nigeria are now better paid and to a certain degree, and now loved at as a bunch of trained, intellectual whose roles as communicators interprets good and bad news are indispensable in a rapidly growing economy such as that of Nigeria.

The hazards in journalism cannot also be over emphasized in that a journalists carving for a carrier in the field of journalism should prepared for the task head and hazard in the profession.


In improving the level of journalism in Nigeria i.e. both broadcast and printing journalism, it is recommended that the government do their best in taking care of the journalists through payment of salary and other allowances.

And that the government should try and eradicate the hazards of journalism in our nation (Nigeria).

Recommendation for Further Studies

For further studies on this research, efforts could be extended to the following;

  1. The problems and prospects of journalism.
  2. The role of broadcast media in preventing media hazards.

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