Attitude Of Secondary School Students To Journalism As A Career: A Case Study Of Millbank Hall Secondary School, Lagos
The researcher in this research work focused on the attitude of secondary school student toward Journalism as career. It is believed that a large number of secondary school students wants to choose Journalism as a career in our country but only a few go into the field to practice their Journalism profession. This is why the research dimmed it fit to research into the image of secondary school students in their career choice. Research hypotheses are formulated to guide the researcher in her study. Relevant related literatures are reviewed to show that similar research work has been carried out and a theoretical framework has been discussed to support the study. Survey method was adopted and this made it possible for the researcher to select an appropriate sample size of 224. Millbank Hall Secondary School, Lagos was selected as a case study. Using appropriate tools like questionnaires and personal interviews, the researcher was able to study population and adopted a simple percentage and frequency table with simple descriptive analysis to explain the table. Hypothesis which are formed from the research questions and tested to enable the researcher know if certain claims made on this work received statistical support or not.
1.1 Background To The Study
Journalism the work of collection, preparation and distribution of related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, news – letter, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, the internet and books. The earliest known journalists product was a news sheet in ancient Rome called the ACTA DIURNA published daily from 59BC, it was hung in prominent places and recorded important social and political events.Journalism in the 2oth was marketed by a growing sense of professionalism. In our society today it has been observed that female mass communication students have negative attitude towards taking journalism as a career. This negative attitude is highly reflected in the number of mass media houses. Almost all institution of higher learning in Nigeria offer mass communication courses leading to the award of various degrees and certificates, including National Diploma, Higher National Diploma, Bachelor and masters degrees.The increase in the number of female graduates from all these institution are not reflected in the media of communication in the country. Each year, hundreds of female students graduates as mass communications. A close look show that the number of female journalist students surpassed the number of males. But in the field today, a good number of those female graduates are not seen working in the various media houses scattered over the country.
Reference to the convocation booklets from these schools revealed that a good number of female mass communication students graduated from these schools. In the year 1997, about 150 female journalist graduated from federal polytechnic oko. The Ogun state polytechnic in the year turned out about 86 female journalist students, institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu had about 140 female graduates. Bida polytechnic had about 26 female graduates from the department of mass communication.
In July 1996, the Ogun state polytechnic turned out 146 female student journalists in both OND and HND levels, the institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu turned out about 120 female student graduates in both ND and HND levels ( 1996 convocation list/booklets).
Similarly with other mass communication schools in the country for instance, in 1995, the convocation booklets of the University of Nigerian Nsukka, revealed that 45 female students graduated from the department of mass communication. In the year 2008, Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU) Awka turned out about 58 female graduates from the department of mass communication. Between the year 2008 and 2009, caritas university Enugu graduated over 50 female journalists.
Presently, in my class in the department of mass communication the number of female students surpassed the number of female students in the mass communication with a great difference.
In recent years, media houses in the western countries lack trained female journalist in the various communication activities. Invariably it has been the same in Nigerian and this could be seen in most cases of the media houses in Nigerian. There has been an imbalance in the number of female, female and trained journalists working with them.
Those who are worried about this situation said that there were more women than men seeking jobs in the media houses and they all have the same ability and background, more men get the jobs. ( women in communication pg 8) she noted that women could only be awarded a job if they are hard working and qualified they must be awarded or offered a job in the journalism profession. Since the general public cannot be in all places at the same time, journalists through the media bring the world closest by reporting politics, sport, disasters even in far away China, UK, US, Russia e. t. c within some seconds. Isamuko, B. (2010)
Journalist is the nose, eye, mouth, ear of the public who help the public to see what is happening, to find-out where it is happening, to help public to ask question on what they want to know from the people involved and to feed them as quickly as possible. Isamuko, B. (2010)
Imagine a life without information, without news, without mass media and journalists.Journalism is the collection, preparation and distribution of news and related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, newsletter, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, the internet and books.
Journalism is one saddled with the responsibility of finding facts, writing news, editing news and other editorial materials that are worthy of public interest for presentation. Journalist work in a radio, television, newspaper, magazine, online news blog/ website e. t. c.
The earliest known journalist product was a newssheet in ancient Rome called the ACTA DIURNA published daily from 59 BC, it was hung in prominent places and recorded important social and political events.
Journalism in the 20th century was marked by a growing sense of professionalism. In our society today it has been observed that there is gender disparity in all quarters, mass media is not an exception yet women journalists have contributed significantly to the development and success of journalism locally and internationally especially in the broadcast media where they serve as newscasters, presenters and reporters.
The research will examine the attitude of secondary school students towards Journalism as a career using students of Millbank Hall Secondary School as a case study.
Brief Overview Of Millbank Hall
Millbank Hall Secondary School, is located at LASU-Isheri Road, Agboroko Bus stop, Iba – Ojo Local Government Area, LagosMillbank Hall is a subsidiary of Kristobell Junior Academy. It is anon-denominational qualitative and functional day school for boys and girls whose parents want to have the best up bringing for their wards. The School was established on the September 18, 2000.
Millbank Hall occupies a total of one acre of land with beautiful landscape.The aim of the school is to provide a secured setting in which the imagination of students can be kindled, industry rewarded and academic potential fulfilled. It also seek to instil the spirit of service and to develop self motivation and self discipline as the basis for leadership at all levels.
Millbank Hall understands that an absolute commitment to continuous improvement, offering an academic challenging education within a conducive and motivating environment will help develop an independent, life-long learners and successful international citizens.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Basically, the study aims at finding out the attitude of secondary school students towards journalism as a career with the view to know the perception and opinions of students especially those in Art department about the course they have in mind to pursue and the reason.
1.3 Purpose Of Study
- To determine the attitude of students towards choosing Journalism as a career.
- To determine the factors that influence student’s attitude towards Journalism.
- To determine extent to which the factors stated influences students attitude towards Journalism.
- To determine Which factor hinders students from choosing Journalism as a career.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the attitude of students towards choosing Journalism as a career?
- Which factors influence student’s attitude towards Journalism?
- To what extent do the factors stated influence students attitude towards Journalism?
- Which factor hinder students from choosing Journalism as a career?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- H0: Students of Secondary School exhibit Positive Attitude Towards Journalism.
- Ha: Students of Secondary School exhibit Negative Attitude Towards Journalism.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
It is hoped that this research work will help education planner to determine the number of upcoming students into journalism.
It will also project to professional journalists how they are judged by the audience.
Parents will also benefit from the work by guiding and educating their children on their careers and expose them to some things that will help molding their careers.
It will also form part of the academic work that future researchers can rely on a as reference material.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This project has been designed and based on attitudes of senior secondary school students to journalism as a career.
The scope of this project concentrate on senior secondary students of case study to authenticate the attitudes of students to journalism as career. Giving brief history about the case study and various definition of journalism.
It also converse the literature review in which information from different authors basically on the project are gathered from journal from textbooks, journals, handout e.t.c. Relevant information from the case study will also be covered. Majority those activities being carried out in Baptist High School concerning their attitude to journalism as a career.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
Uneasy lies the heads that wears the grown so they say. The research on this project is not an expectation because it has been subjected to series of setback and limitations.
There are many limitations ranging form not knowing where to start, not knowing who to consult or approach for materials not knowing what next to write in various segment of this study and not actually knowing who to put me through in achieving my work and others are:
- Stress from other academic activities is one of the limitations to the research work
- Financial constraint to travel to different places.
- Duration for the research work is relatively short
- Materials that are available on this topic is relatively small as the concept is new or people are not written from that angle.
Other major limitation is difficulties to collect some information and to confirmation some data from the case study there believed that as part of their protocol information should not be disclosed anyhow especially to outsiders.
1.9 Definition Of The Term
This is the thinking or feeling which female mass communication students exhibits towards the practice of journalism.
This is the professional job expected of every graduate of mass communication to practice which is the work of collecting writing and publishing of news stories, articles in Newspapers and magazines or broadcasting them on Radio and Television to inform the general public on things happening in the world
This is a particular job or the type of Job one do in other to earn a living. Such as journalism for graduates of mass communication
1.10 Organization Of The Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to investigate the attitude of secondary school student to journalism as a career.
In the preceding chapters, relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges and causes of secondary school student negative attitude to journalism as a career
Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that students need career education and counselling services that would expose them to modern career opportunities. This becomes more imperative considering the reality of the current high rate of unemployment among Nigerian youth. Breaking new grounds may be all that is needed to reduce the problem of unemployment. Therefore, schools should organize periodic career education and strengthen their counselling services so that students can be exposed to the various emerging and highly promising careers in the modern world, hence re-orienting their minds.
Based on the findings, it has been observed that most of the most secondary school students would want to practice journalism as a career. Yet majority of them still believe that it may not be possible based on the above stated reason. This means that certain perceived difficulties like freedom of expression and Journalist rights and privileges needs to be harmonized and strengthened.
Having critically analyzed the attitude of students towards journalism as a career, the researcher hereby make the following recommendations for further study thus:
First, unemployment as a national problem should receive continued concern from the government as well as the private sector. The government should encourage entrepreneurship even in Journalism and broadcasting. This will aid in reducing the burden of unemployment.
Secondly, the school should also include career counselling as part of their curriculum if it is not. This will help in preparing the students on making informed choices.
The Media houses should adopt strategies that will aid in expansion and fairness. The expansion will accommodate more people who have the passion for journalism while fairness will give room for originality and unbias reportage.
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