The Challenges Of Facing Nigerian Journalist In A Democratic Dispensation (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)
This study was carried out to examine the challenges of facing Nigerian journalist in a democratic dispensation in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation, Cross Rivers State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of journalist in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that journalists encounter problems in their effort at sustaining democracy in the present democratic dispensation. The findings also reveals that poor management affect the performance of journalist in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that a professional worthy of its salt should strive for journalistic independence. Independence in journalism means freedom from all obligations that might interfere with the fidelity to the public interest. An honest journalist therefore must not be seen to promote any private or corporate interest which is unacceptable to the general public. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Over the years, Nigeria has suffered a lot of intimidation, humiliation, harassment, imprisonment and frustration, under military leadership in an effort to fulfill their professional ethics. If well examined, history shows how Nigeria has suffered so much and also the effort made by Nigeria journalists to install and maintain a long lasting and genuine democracy.
According to Umechukwu (1973) Minere Amakri” the Port Harcourt correspondent for the observer newspaper was arrested tortured and detained after his head was shaved with a broken bottle for reporting on impending strike by teachers in Rivers State. The story appeared in the observer on Governor Alfred Diettepitts birthday.
In 1983, Raly Ekpu a reporter of the concord news paper was arrested and detained a day after Ekpu Published on article in which he said that the rate at which public building were being set on fire to cover up fraud, he would not be surprised if MET, which was reveling that fraud was on fire.
According to Ijendu Ihuaka a punch newspaper correspondent in Enugu, cases of harassment, threats and dismissal of journalists by government is an every day occurrence. He cited the example of Emmanuel one Ibadan correspondents who was asked to leave Enugu by the state governor he escaped death in the hands of assassins by diving grace of God.
Wali Olu, a journalist in Imo State was beaten because of a story that he reported to Radio Nigeria Enugu on 19 October 2009. on the issue of blind people in Imo State protesting against government regretting on them. He told Radio Nigeria that when the blind people were protesting that no government official attended to them.
Chief security of Imo State government house ordered his men to beat him up, after the story was aired on Radio Nigeria Network news.
Some of these cases show that the press is not actually free in Nigeria. But though there was social responsibility theory of the press or mass media as propounded by sieber Petterson and Schram (1963) provided a functional model for the analysis of the journalist role in political evolution and maintenance of a genuine democracy and they include the following:
- Making sure that the democratic system is serviced by creating the rightful avenues necessary for examples includes discussion and debate.
- Creating an enabling condition or environment for the economy to grow strong especially through advertising.
- Adhering strictly to the press council of Nigeria as this will boost the journalist his financial self sufficiency in order to be free from the pressure of government interest (special interest).
- Entertaining the public with information and other well packaged programmees.
Moreover, the social responsibility theory as articulated by the Hutchins commission of 1946 reports on a free and responsible press. It argues that people to all kinds information and opinion then to let the public decide for them.
Hutchins commission proffered five requirement designed to guarantee balance information from the press and it includes:
- The media should provide a truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of event in context, which give them meaning.
- Provide a forum for the exchange of opinion and criticism.
- Responsible for the presentation and classification of goals and values of the society.
- Provide representative picture of constitution group in the society.
- Provide full access to the days intelligence these will tend to back up the centribpetal nature of our policy, but relegating the ones that has to do with the centrifugal aspects of its existence.
The above clearly state the function that the journalist will may in the democratic dispensation that we are in because,
Democracy is the right of the people to participation in the constitutional right to choose, the right to express themselves and the right to demand accountability from those entrusted with the authority of leadership and government.
However, through the above statement, some facts are noted of which this task will be achieved, but there should not be any basis on the part of the journalist because watchdog of the people and bark when the interest are threatened. And also he is the bridge that links the people with government and the intellectual mirror through which the people see themselves.
Really, journalist are see themselves upon as the only source to only lasting and enabling democracy through their mass communication but a lot of hindrance abound from the foreign, one easily observe that it has not been easy for the Nigeria pres and journalist generally because since inception in 1859, especially in the area of freedom it has recalled vividly that governor A.S Freeman Shuddered in Persuading the colonial Officer to strife the popular(Davies, 2006).
Iwe Irohm (the First Newspaper in Nigeria) through taxation in 1862, laying the complaint of policy (obi, 1985) No wonder Nigeria first prime minister, Tafawa Balewa had talked to the press and journalist as:
Suffering from colonial mentality and inferiority complex” He continued by saying that the government, which I head will not tolerate from you (the press) what British Administrators tolerated in this country is past years.
It is against the background of the scenario painted above that the John Tusa (1920) pointed that free is the mark of a confidence nation, an accurate press is that which can criticize temperately and government which reacts to such criticism are evidence of a civilized state.
However, when we consider today’s government, in Nigeria on would not be wrong to say that Nigeria centres her journalism practice on the social responsibility theory.
The above illustration the necessary task and function which falls on journalist in making sure that the ideas that facilitates is not comprised in any form.
So a good government must listen to the voice of the people which is the voice of reason and this can only be effectively done by the press. Any government that with hunts the press must have something to hide. Any government that has noting to hide has nothing to fear.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It has been observed those Nigerian journalists are faced with different changes during this political dispensation especially the journalist in Enugu State metropolis.
The challenges therefore reflect on the three hundred practicing journalist in Enugu State in different media house that were humiliated, even assassinated because they were trying to perform their duty.
According to Ijendu Ihuaka a punch newspaper correspondent in Enugu cases of harassment, threats and dismissal of journalist by government is an everyday occurrence. He cited the example of Emmanuel Obe currently Ibadan correspondent who was asked to leave Enugu by the state government he escaped death in the hands of assassins by divine grace(PunchNews.2012).
Communication is also vital aspect of the challenges as it has to do with sustaining Nigeria democracy especially assisting the democratic government in promoting the proper rise of power, human right, free and egalitarian society which will in turn entrance national development(Baran, 2009).
The freedom of information bill, which would allow journalist and citizens grater access to government information and provide protection for whistle blowers I the government is still pending though PDOP legislator that promised to pass the bill has stagnated in National Assembly(Ewelukwa, 2004).
Infact, this militates against the efforts of journalist in national and nation building as the life wire of the democratic government.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study intends to find out the challenges facing Nigeria journalist in a democratic dispensation and efforts to make in order to have a successfully democracy.
- To determine the extent to which insufficiency and bad government rained Nigeria democratic experiments.
- To awaken the need for more languages and cleaning on the part of journalist in performing their duties.
- To examine and determine the contribution of journalist in the sustenance of National economy.
- More reference will be made also from the dispensation, which also gives rise to this particular research.
1.4 Research Questions
The under-listed research question were asked in the study and attempted would be made to answer the questions.
- Do journalists encounter problems in their effort at sustaining democracy in the present democratic dispensation?
- Do journalists encounter problems in their effort at sustaining democracy in the present democratic dispensation.
- Does poor management affect the performance of journalist in Nigeria?
- Are journalist given enough freedom to perform their job?
- Do poor communication affects the performance of journalist in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- H01: Journalist encounter problem in their effort at sustaining democracy the present democratic dispensation.
Ha1: Journalist does not encounter problems in their effort at sustaining democracy.
- H02: Nigeria journalists do not make concerted effort to sustain Nigerians present democracy
Ha2: Nigeria journalist makes concerted effort to sustain Nigerians present democracy.
- H03: Poor management will not likely affect the performance at journalist in Nigeria
Ha3: Poor management will likely affect the performance of journalist in Nigeria
- H04: Journalist are not given enough freedom to reform their job.
Ha4: Journalist are given enough freedom to perform their job.
- H04: Poor communication will not likely affect the performance of journalist in Nigeria
Ha5: Poor communication will likely affect the performance of journalist in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
Communication as in every society is indispensable hence journalism remains a tool for better political involvement, national development, economic improvement and good administration.
Journalism which remain effective reliable way of communication but, still they are faced with numerous challenges both on the government censorship and the people question for said and sustainable democracy.
Finally, they study will carefully examine some of the problems, which will include man power needs in management, programme and information generation as well as adequate funding by the government.
Some of these needs include:
- Government assistance in providing equipment and improving the challenges or constraint of journalists in mobilizing the general public.
- The needs for the journalist to boast their crusade for national unity service, because this is the only way of maintaining and sanity in the society.
- Appreciating the effort and contribution of various journalism in building the present Nigerian.
This is very vital for heroes and pioneers of journalist work, which have contributed immensely in bringing about the Nigeria democracy.
Those to benefit from this study include
They should give freedom to the journalist in order to get information freely and also have the power to reveal the illness of the society.
They are the people in authority of the state, they represent us, and so they have the power allow the journalist in carrying out information without any hindrance.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will assess the challenges of facing Nigerian journalist in a democratic dispensation. The study will be carried out in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation, Cross Rivers State.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition of Terms
In this area, certain key concepts are defined conceptually and operationally.
Journalist working on different such as television, radio, print media house
The process or act of allowing everybody equal chance to exercise his franchise.
Period of time that democracy has been in place in Nigeria.
Problems constraints and impediments which the journalist will have to contend with e. glack of freedom lack of job, security etc.
This means where by the media people inform their audience about activities of the government.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings of the study on the challenges of facing Nigerian journalist in a democratic dispensation in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation, Cross Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the challenges of facing Nigerian journalist in a democratic dispensation in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation, Cross Rivers State.
The study is was specifically carried out to determine the extent to which insufficiency and bad government rained Nigeria democratic experiments, awaken the need for more languages and cleaning on the part of journalist in performing their duties, examine and determine the contribution of journalist in the sustenance of National economy, and more reference will be made also from the dispensation, which also gives rise to this particular research.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were journalist in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- Journalists encounter problems in their effort at sustaining democracy in the present democratic dispensation.
- Nigeria journalists do make concerted effort t osustain Nigerians present democracy.
- Poor management affect the performance of journalist in Nigeria.
- Journalist given enough freedom to perform their job.
- Poor communication affects the performance of journalist in Nigeria.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Employers and employees of the media industry should make it a point of duty for continuous training and retraining. Many hours spent improving staff is definitely time well spent.
- Media owners should come to terms with the reality of the primary role of the media in a democratic society which is to tell the truth objectively covering all shades of opinion and facts relevant to the issue in question. This is what investigative journalism can do and the editorial policy should espouse this to the latter.
- A professional worthy of its salt should strive for journalistic independence. Independence in journalism means freedom from all obligations that might interfere with the fidelity to the public interest. An honest journalist therefore must not be seen to promote any private or corporate interest which is unacceptable to the general public. Also, partisanship in editorial comment which a journalist deliberately make is a clear departure from the truth and not in the spirit of good journalism. It is instructive to note that all decisions on news coverage, news content, slant and depth should be taken by the editorial team rather than being imposed by outsiders.
- Media owners should not sacrifice the truth on the altars of partisanship or profit-making or any other selfish ends.
- Journalists should constantly engage themselves in fora such as symposia, workshops and the likes to evaluate the practice of investigative journalism in the country and chat the way forward.
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