The Attitude Of Mass Communication Students Towards Print Journalism (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic, Nekede)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Attitude Of Mass Communication Students Towards Print Journalism (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic, Nekede)


Here, the choice of areas of specialization has become a problem to some students, for instance in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. In as much as mass communication has made of different fields. Some of them field appear to be more appealing to some students than others.

Though this research work is an attempt to determine whether mass communication student have positive or negative attitude towards print journalist as it is said by some, and too to determine also the reason behind this situation. The study made use of survey method of mass communication student of Federal Polytechnic Nekede.

And the result of this study has indicated that mass communication student purposely do not want to specialize in print journalism due to poor remuneration paid to print journalist. The study also demands that student should not consider higher remuneration as a priority in their choice of specialization but request to seek for professional fulfillment.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terns

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 History of print journalism in Nigeria
  • 2.2 Print journalism as a career
  • 2.3 Students perception of print media
  • 2.4 Advancement in print media
  • 2.5 Internet and print media
  • 2.6 Redefinition print media
  • 2.7 Conceptual review
  • 2.8 Theoretical framework
  • 2.9 Summary of findings

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size
  • 3.4 Sampling techniques
  • 3.5 Sources of data
  • 3.6 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.7 Validity of instrument
  • 3.8 Administrative of the instrument
  • 3.9 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four:

Analysis Of Data And Interpretation Of Findings

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentations of data
  • 4.3 Data analysis
  • 4.4 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

In the beginning was the word and the word was with communication without which community life will be meaningless” Eyutchae (2002, p. 8) perhaps, that analogue to a passage in the Greek historical literature aptly expresses the characteristics of mass communication process. It illustrates the very genesis of what through technological advancement came to be known as the press.

Print media as one of mass communication areas is a device for delivering information thought, knowledge, ideas and attitudes of mass communication students towards print journalism, it is of great important to streamline students attitude in order to know if it is positive or negative.

In the case of this a random survey of the student’s attitude will also be discovered from this survey. Tracing history, one can rightly discover the treatment being meted on journalists in Nigeria, particularly during military regimes when many journalists were either killed or locked up in the jail of unknown reasons.

Mass communication systems are as old as the world itself and existed even in primitive societies. The use of modern of communication in the so – called civilized world is merely an outgrowth of the basic symbols of expression – tonal, gestures, or symbolic. The history of the print journalism is characterized by political, social, economic and technological developments that have changed the shape of the newspapers, magazines and books in the final analysis.

History made us to understand that the earliest written words were made with the Egyptian papyrus called hieroglyphic writing however, some historians said that printing paper was invented by the Chinese and spread to the Arabs in 751, a Moslem army in central Asia captured some Chinese among whom were a number of paper makers. Those pioneers were brought to Samarkand where they established a paper factory.

A German industrialist by name Johann Gutenberg invited printing press and introduced movable type to the western world. Gutenberg cast his type in soft material rather than carving it in wood blocks. He borrowed an idea from wine making and built the ink onto the paper.

Print journalism can be traced back to Julius Caesar when he introduced the earliest newspaper ACTA Diurnal, which he started in ancient Rome, forty four years before the advent of Christianity. William Caxton introduced the printing press in Great Britain in 1487 and established a profitable London printing company.

After the invention of printing, the urge to have a mass circulated newspaper came as more book went into print, people were encouraged to learn how to read. As literacy grew, people became curious and realized that knowledge of economic conditions and commercial information from other towns and countries could be beneficial to their own efforts. Publication sprang up across Europe to meet these needs.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Print journalism is an important field of mass communication. It is one media that has evolved over the years especially with technological advancement in the communication industry. Print journalism cannot be said to be encouraging.

There is an indication showing that almost all mass communication students in the nation’s institutions of higher learning want to specialize in public relations and advertising or electronic media.

An insignificant few want to specialize in print journalism; some of them are said to b leaving the profession in search for better pay, quiet and less controversial jobs.

For instance, during the military regimes in Nigeria, many journalists were either killed or locked up in jail for unknown reasons. Could this be part of the reasons for the student’s attitude?

The central problem to be investigated in this study is to know the attitudes of mass communication students towards print journalism in Nigeria, using students of mass communication in federal polytechnic Nekede Imo State as a case study.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

  1. To determine whether mass communication students have positive or negative attitude towards print journalism.
  2. To determine whether government harassment of practicing journalists affects the student’s attitude towards print journalism.
  3. To find out the students view towards remuneration in print media.
  4. To make recommendations based on the findings of the study.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Do mass communication students have positive or negative attitude towards print journalism?
  2. Has government harassment of practicing print journalists affected the attitude of students towards?
    Print journalism?
  3. Has remuneration in print media any relationship to the student’s attitude?
  4. What can be done to change these perception?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study is useful to fresh students who may be in dilemma of what areas of mass communication to major. It will also be useful to teachers and indeed to all who wishes to study or carryout research in mass communication, as it affects students’ attitude.

It will also go a long way in helping the students to decide on which aspect to major in.
Through the administration of questionnaire to practicing journalist in various branches of mass communication. This research will also proffer some solutions to salient questions in the activities of curriculum planners.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study focused mainly on the attitude of mass communication students only of the Federal Polytechnic Nekede.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

This study is also limited due to mobility to get enough information. The sample Size used may be too small to be generalized but not with standing by area covered are within acceptability. The sample size limitation is sequel to financial constraints.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Conceptual Meaning:

This is the way that you think about something: the way that you behave towards somebody or something that shows how you think and feel.

Operational Meaning:

The opinions and feelings that you usually have about something.

Mass Communication
Operational Meaning:

This is the process in which professional communicators use the mass media to disseminate messages widely rapidly and continuously to arouse intended meanings in large and diverse audience in attempt to influence them in a variety of ways.

Operational Meaning:

Mass Communication is the study of how individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segment of the population at the same time.

Conceptual Meaning:

The work of collecting and writing news stories for news papers, magazines, radio or television.

Operational meaning:

Journalism is gathering, processing, and dissemination of news and information related to the news to an audience.

Conceptual Meaning:

To provide letters pictures etc. on a paper using a machine that puts ink on the surface.

Operational Meaning:

This is the use of newspaper, magazines and books in communicating message to its target audience.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.0 Introduction

In this chapter it studies the area which the researcher observer and obtained whether students have negative and positive impart towards print journalism. This study draw the conclusion of all chapters on the research topic project on “the altitude of mass communication student towards print journalism”

5.1 Summary

Attitude of mass communication student towards print journalism has been meticulously appraised in this research work. In chapter one the research pointed out the problems as well as the purpose of the research. The review of relate literature in chapter two was selected to give background view of what scholars in mass communication had researched on the subject matter earlier.

The researcher also compared what had been written with what is obtainable in his area of study, with a view to determining whether students have positive or negative attitude towards print journalism.

On the actual investigation, the researcher used questionnaire to gather the needed data.

In chapter four, the researcher presented he findings and analyzed them using table and sample percentage calculation. Discussions were carried out on finding which were aimed at highlighting the classical and intellectual base that would lead to possible solution.

Finally the objectives of their research is climaxed in chapter five, where the researcher rounded up the work by a guide recommendation on ways and means of achieving a positive attitudes of mass communication students towards print journalism.

5.2 Conclusion

The major aim of this writ – up is to find out whether the students of mass communication have a positive or negative attitude towards print journals, also to find out the reasons behind this attitude and make possible recommendations base on the findings of the study.

From the discussion in the various chapter, it could be observed that most students of mass communication seems to find favour in public relations/advertising with a few option for broadcasting, consequently, one or two seems to choose print journalism.

In the cause of finding out why majority of the students prefer public relations/advertising to print and even broadcasting, questionnaire was administered.

5.3 Recommendation

In view of the data collected, analyzed and discussed in this study, the researcher therefore, makes the following r recommendations, which she believed would go a long way in curbing the attitudes of mass communication students towards print journalism.

The researcher therefore recommends that subsequent researches on students’ attitudes should be geared towards;

  1. Government and its influence on print media in Nigeria.
  2. Problems associated with poor remuneration of print journalism in the country.
  3. Maltreatment of journalist by those in power.
  4. Efforts should also be made by departmental management to disabuse the minds of present and in coming mass communication students towards print journalism.
  5. Students should be encouraged to major in print journalism.
  6. The activities of press council in Nigeria must be look into as a way of checking anti – press laws made by them and past administrators.

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