Perception Of Social Media Use In Advertising Refined Garri (A Study Of Mass Communication Students Of Novena University)
This study examined “Perception Of Social Media Use In Advertising Refined Garri (a Study Of Mass Communication Students Of Novena University)”. The main objective of this study is to ascertain the influence of predictor variables (sociability, usability, dependability, involvement) on patronage. Structured questionnaire was design to collect data from the respondents. Sample size of 383 users of social was used. Factor analysis was used to test the reliability of the research instrument. Hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using mediation analysis to test the hypotheses in SPSS version 25. Findings revealed among others that there is a positive relationship between sociability, dependability, involvement and patronage of Refined Garri in Novena University. It was equally discovered that usability of social media had no relationship with patronage. It was recommended among others that business organizations who use social media as a means of advertising should concentrate on social media platforms that enhance community and connectedness. It was also recommended that sellers of Refined Garri should channel their message to members of the public who depend on social media advertising for patronage.
Key words: Social media, Patronage, Advertising, Refined Garri, Social media models
1.1 Background to the Study
Recent developmental strides in the field of communication technology has taken marketing to a different height where every committed marketing enterprise should be proactive and concerned about their communication growth strategies if they are to remain competitive in contemporary marketing space. This is correct because a careful look at how marketing operations are conducted today, especially in the area of marketing communication and advertising, indicate that there is a significant paradigm shift in terms of advertising modus operandi and customer service strategies. According to Jashari (2017), internet and social media usage has revolutionized consumer behavioural pattern, methods of patronage, access to information and consumption. This calls for a serious concern to every dedicated marketing outfit. Social media advertising has significantly altered the communication equation among online users and other products consumers which ultimately influence their pattern of patronage (Ebitu, 2016).
Few years ago, the practice of marketing was done offline and a great percentage of business organizations were successful without internet and social media advertising. Today, all of that have changed. Social media plays a significant role in contemporary business organizations both from the perspective of businesses and consumers.(Asika, 2016) What is interesting about social media is that it supports users in several sectors such as marketing, engineering, advertising, medicine, law, education etc. (Achunam, 2018).
In today’s technology driven world, social media has become an avenue where business operatives can extend their marketing campaigns to a wider range of consumers. Evans, Jamal and Foxall (2009), observed that the growth of social media has become important communication channels and virtual communities have emerged that may never meet in the physical world but nevertheless can affect behavior including purchasing decisions. Social media is commonly associated with social networks such as Facebook, My Space, LinkedIn (Boyd & Ellison, 2007). Additionally, social media has recently outpaced email as the most popular online activity and has enabled consumers to connect with others by sharing information, opinions and thoughts about products and brands. (Jashiri & Brustemi, 2017).
One of the most outstanding marketing scholars Liwei Chen (2014), proposed a model which is made up of four independent variables, (sociability, usability, dependence, and involvement, three intervening variables (perceived risks, perceived value, and trust) and one outcome variable or dependent variable – patronage. This model has been cited by many contemporary researchers to represent average cause and effects relationship between the variables identified above and patronage. The researcher is worried about incessant citing of this model as there is a need to subject this proposition to empirical investigation in order to ascertain the veracity of this model, especially as it applies to students in Novena University. The existence of this gap is worthy reason for this investigation as no similar research has been conducted in this part of the world.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Social media advertising has gained the preference of many organizations due to its interactive nature coupled with the relatively easy evaluation of advertising efforts on these platforms (Webster and Hume, 2015). These social media platforms to name a few, Facebook, Snapchat and Twitter have enabled the customer to access more information and also to have a more direct involvement in organization that advertise on these platforms. The use of influencers in social media advertisements has made the effects of social media advertising even greater and to an extent, making consumers buy products they do not even have need of (Rishi, B. 2018).
The mass communication channel most widely used in advertising, particularly in the case of consumer products, television is also the advertising support that has experienced the fastest expansion and which has the greatest impact on consumer’s behaviour (Jefkins, 2000). Looking over to Television advertisement, its essence has not become obsolete by the influx of social media advertising as it combines visuals and audio in sending messages, quite similar to what is done in social media advertising. It however has some disadvantages of being very costly, and being perishable (forgotten if not repeated), it has some advantages of being targeted in cases where adverts are aired during some particular television shows as it would immediately reach the segment of the market that watch the show, and being able to reach a high audience as TV addresses a mass audience, homogeneous or heterogeneous (Bedore, J. M. 1992). Television adverts are good to reach a large audience nevertheless can be ignored by just a button on a remote control. The existence of many television channels have given customers a wide range of exposures and as such can easily miss or ignore adverts. Whereas this is a problem to television advertising, social media advertising is not left out as it has the tendency of becoming annoying especially in the case of pop-up advertisement on websites. Due to these handicapping limitations, there is a gap in knowledge as to which one is more effective: Television advertising or social media advertising.
In as much as social media are great advertising platforms as they offer easy, fast and real-time involvement with organizations, their inherent dangers to society cannot be underrated. One must own an account on social media before experiencing the advertising benefits that come with these platforms. Possessing these accounts make one vulnerable to several threats like internet addiction and Facebook depression, which is an emotional disturbance associated with Facebook usage when a user, typically a teenager is made to feel inferior to his or her counterparts on social media as they desire to be as they see them on social media which may not even be the case in reality (Trigger, 2018). Another of the threats is cyber bullying where false or embarrassing information are communicated to a specific user, driving that user to depression, anxiety, low self-esteem and in extreme cases even suicide. Many others also spend so much time on social media which results in loss of jobs and negligence to family and other aspects of their lives. These inherent evils of social media give them an unfavourable perception among some people in our societies, making social media a problem rather than a blessing.
Therefore this study seeks to determine whether the use of social media has an effect on the purchasing behaviour of cosmetic product consumers based on these enumerated issues.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to ascertain the Perception Of Social Media Use In Advertising Refined Garri (a Study Of Mass Communication Students Of Novena University).
The specific objectives are as follows:
- To ascertain the effects of sociability on Advertising Refined Garri.
- To find out the influence of usability of social media on Advertising Refined Garri.
- To ascertain the effects of social media dependence on Advertising Refined Garri.
- To find out the effect of level of social media involvement on Advertising Refined Garri.
1.4 Research Question
The study will provide answers to the following research questions;
- What is the effects of sociability on Advertising Refined Garri ?
- What is the influence of usability of social media on Advertising Refined Garri ?
- What is the effects of social media dependence on Advertising Refined Garri ?
- What is the effect of level of social media involvement on Advertising Refined Garri ?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between sociability and patronage of Refined Garri.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between usability and patronage of Refined Garri.
Ho3: There is no significant relationship between dependability and patronage of Refined Garri.
Ho4: There is no significant relationship between social media involvement and patronage of Refined Garri.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is important because it revealed the success or failure of social media advertising and thus, will help both government and private business executives to decide if social media advertising should be part of their advertising budget or not. This study will enlighten intending advertisers on how to package their social media advertising campaign since it will reveal the extent of awareness of the use of social media in advertising. The factors that hamper effective application of social media in advertising as this study will show will act as precautionary measures for intending users particularly advertisers. This study will equally serve as a platform for further enquiries in related subject matters and as a resource material for researchers who intend to carry out studies in this and other related areas.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will cover an investigation into the impact of social media on the patronage of goods and services in south south Nigeria. It will look to determine whether the social media influences the choice of students towards a particular business organization. This study will only cover mass communication students of Novena university.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
In the process of carrying out this study, the following problems were encountered by the researcher, this includes:
The time within which this work must be completed and submitted for appraisal stood as an impediment to this project work.
Due to lack of finance at the disposal of the researcher, affected the quality of this work, cause my sponsor(parents) prefers to spend money on my younger once admission into the University recently (2019/2020) academic session) rather than devoting huge financial resources on this study that will be of economic and academic importance in years to come.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking.
Money that is given to a store, a marketer, or a hotel by customers, clients and other stakeholders usually in exchange for a product or service.
The willingness of a customer to buy a certain product or service.
Consisting of things that are similar or all of the same type.
Consisting of many different types or people or things.
A particular way of understanding or thinking about something.
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The research centered on the Perception Of Social Media Use In Advertising Refined Garri (a Study Of Mass Communication Students Of Novena University). It specifically aimed at ascertaining the effects of sociability on Advertising Refined Garri; finding out the influence of usability of social media on Advertising Refined Garri; ascertaining the effects of social media dependence on Advertising Refined Garri and finding out the effect of level of social media involvement on Advertising Refined Garri..
The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling techniques, three hundred and twenty eight (328) participants was enrolled for the study. A well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent. Data was analyzed using simple percentage as well as frequencies and table. Hypothesis test was conducted using Chi-Square statistical tool (SPSS v.2.3)
In recent times, social media advertising has taken a giant posture in the communication component of contemporary business organizations, and has significantly influenced marketing communication equation of these enterprises to a large proportion. An enterprise that is able to manage this arm of communication is likely to permeate the hearts of their numerous customers and make remarkable impact on the organizations objectives especially in the area of market share expansion and customers satisfaction. In a bid to explain these variables that are likely to influence patronage, Chen (2014) proposed a model which is made up of four independent variables (Sociability, Usability, Dependence and Involvement) and three mediating variables (Perceived risk, perceived value and Trust) and one outcome variable-Patronage.
This study has been able to counter some of the positions established by Chen (2014). It has been established that sociability influences patronage in the University. Again, this study affirmed the fact that dependability and social media involvement can actually influence patronage to a large extent. This connotes that, targeting customers who depend and are irrevocably involved in social media will certainly increase the chances of patronage. At the same time, not all the mediating variables are capable of influencing the relationship between independent and dependent variables as proposed earlier. It was established that accessibility and availability of time have a serious positive influence on patronage of Refined Garri in Novena University. Therefore, to depend on social media advertising, business organizations should ensure that members of their target market have sufficient time to be online. Secondly, they should be certain that their target market have the ability to access their advert on social media. In all these internet literacy and income should also be put into consideration in order to reap maximum benefits of social media advertising.
Based on the findings in the preceding chapters, we make the following recommendations;
- We therefore recommend that business organizations who use social media as a means of advertising should concentrate on social media platforms that enhances only community and connectedness.
- In line with the findings of other researchers, dependability has been confirmed to be a very important variable that could lead to patronage. We therefore recommend that sellers of Refined Garri in Novena University and it’s environ should channel their message to members of the public who depend on social media advertising. This recommendation has become important because it would be an effort in futility if a message is directed to a target market who do not depend on social media as a source of information. If messages are directed to the right quarters, there is high probability that purchases would increase.
- We recommend that marketers of Refined Garri in Novena University should channel their energy on target markets who are deeply involved in social media and allied activities.
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge
Contrary to existing body of knowledge, this investigation has proved that usability is not a significant predictor variable of patronage in Novena University in Nigeria. This is not in agreement with the findings of Liwei (2014), who postulated that usability is a potent determinant of patronage.
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