The Use Of Radio For Youth Mobilization In National Politics; A Study Of Mass Communication Students Of Novena University, Ogume

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The Use Of Radio For Youth Mobilization In National Politics; A Study Of Mass Communication Students Of Novena University, Ogume


Abstract


This study was carried out on the use of radio for youth mobilization in national politics using mass communication students of Novena university as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of mass communication students of Novena university. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the youths are able to access political information through the radio.The study also revealed that the extent the radio is used for youth mobilization in Nigeria is low. Further findings showed that the use of radio for youth mobilization has increased the youths involvement in national politics. Therefore, it is recommended that the media should pick up the task to produce radio mobilization programmes that will help to enhance political participation. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Politics in democratic states across the world have become standard and acceptable procedure for democratic leadership and constitutional governance (Jendele, 2011 & McChesney, 2015). During this time, voters democratically elect their preferred leaders who, in return, serve them for a specified period of time depending on the constitutional term limit in their respective countries.

Following the promulgation of Nigerian Constitution 1999, the country, like most other African nations, pegged her constitutional limit for a political elected office such president, senators, house of representatives both federal and state level, local government chairman counselors etc. to go for two terms of 4 years each. During elections, those gunning for political office engage in campaigns, and use various strategies to mobilize their electorates into casting the ballot in their favor. And as such, elections are given a lot of attention the world over, attracting massive expenditure of financial resources on political advertisement. For instance, national elections in the United States of America (USA) and United Kingdom (UK), have continued to attract global attention given their global geo-political influence (Fourie, 2013).

In Nigeria 2004, 2007, 2011, 2015, and 2019 political campaigns, presidential candidates went out full throttle to mobilize voters, leaving nothing to chance. They deployed various strategies to persuade voters to cast the ballot in their favor, during the highly competitive political campaigns.

The media industry has experienced a continuous technological advancement in the 20th and 21st cen- turies, radio as a mass medium remains the most accessible, affordable and flexible medium of mass communication in developing countries. Radio can persuade and effectively influence large audience, thereby contributing substantially to the building of a national consensus. It is an effective tool for youth mobilization and behavioural change within a society.

Massive use of political advertisement in television, radio, social media, posters, billboards, cars and aircraft paintings was done to mobilize and inform voters on various contenders for different public offices. Cognizant of the important role of the radio in electoral processes, the contest saw political contenders deploy massive resources to sell their agenda and manifestos through news, political talk- shows or advertisements in radio (IEBC, 2012).
Extensive use of radio as an effective communication tool is evident during political campaigns period worldwide. It stands out as a political mobilization medium in different countries. Its coverage, diversity and change with social context have made it a social mobilization tool. Television, radio, newspapers, posters are among different forms of radio that are mostly used in political mobilization during the election period worldwide (Akpor, 2013; Jendele, 2011; Ngugi, 2014).

Politicians have adopted political advertising as a form of wooing their supporters. Political advertisement is done in return for supporting or opposing a candidate for election to the public office (Edegoh et al.2013). While television is the medium of choice by politicians in the developed world, radio is dominantly used in many developing countries (McChesney, 2015; Myers, 2008). This is largely because of reach.

In Africa, for example, over 80% of its population listen to radio because of its geographical distribution, cost effectiveness, portability and communal living pattern (Myers, 2008).

Radio is now everywhere and has recently passed its 100th anniversary in providing information (Weisenhorn, Meyer, McGoff, & Rooney, 2021). It is accessible to the taxi driver in Lagos, the itinerant fisherman in waterside and the roving nomad behind his cattle; it can be made to cater to the needs of specialised, small targeted audience of artisans, fishermen, farmers, the rural poor, the urban destitute, the elderly, lactating mothers, children and youths especially (Soola, 2003; Ojebode, 2003). It remains the cheapest to buy and these days phones have inbuilt radio in them, everyone within a community can afford one. Its cost-effective characteristic makes it more accessible and an effective tool for community mobilization. Historically, it is used for information dissemination in rural communities (Weisenhorn et al., 2021).

Radio’s usefulness to bring the desired changes and development to communities depends largely on the type of programme packaged. Most radio programmes however are not designed to bridge the knowledge gap between the elite and masses, thereby relegating the role of the media to inform, educate and enlighten the masses.

Furthermore, radio programmes have largely focused on entertainment, religious and political mat- ters, there is also paucity of programmes on youth empowerment and national development. This chapter examined the availability of youth programmes on radio through assessment of radio programmes to ascertain the shortfalls of programmes in addressing (idle) youths within a society to become self-reliant for youth empowerment and national development.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The history of elections in Nigeria generally has afforded us the golden opportunity of assessment of the divergent roles of the radio in Nigeria political process within the framework of our national political goal. The issue and question of education, information, mobilization and monitoring has become a very crucial factor in the realization of the national objectives in the context of the political process. This is as a result of the ugly incidences of various forms of electoral malpractices which have repeatedly threatened the possibility of credible elections and national integration in Nigeria. Though the issue at stake is the responsibility of all stakeholders in the body politic, there is however, a rationale in assigning this responsibility as a primary concern of the radio on the ground of professional competence as the fourth estate of the realm.

It has therefore, become very important to assess the roles of the radio in the political mobilization. Iredia (2007) the former Director General of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA), states the problem in this regard very clearly that, the people must be assisted to premise their choices of rationality and vote wisely during elections. They must have all information that is needed to elect the right candidates who can ensure good governance. Where such public awareness is lacking, those of us in the media must accept a share of the blame of failed elections in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the use of radio for youth mobilization in national politics: a study of mass communication students of Novena university, Ogume. Specific objectives of this study are:

  1. Find out the extent youths utilizes radio.
  2. To determine whether the youths are able to access political information through the radio.
  3. To determine the extent the radio is used for youth mobilization in Nigeria.
  4. To determine whether the use of radio for youth mobilization has increased the youths involvement in national politics.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent does youths utilize radio?
  2. Are the youths able to access political information through the radio?
  3. To what extent is the radio used for youth mobilization in Nigeria?
  4. Has the use of radio for youth mobilization increased the youths involvement in national politics?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

H0: The use of radio for youth mobilization has not increased the youths involvement in national politics.

Ha: The use of radio for youth mobilization has increased the youths involvement in national politics.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great importance to the youths, political parties and the nation as a whole.
It will also serve as a reference material for further studies and future research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the use of radio for youth mobilization in national politics: a study of mass communication students of Novena university, Ogume. Specifically, this study focuses on finding out the challenges of using the radio for youth mobilization in national politics, determining the extent the radio is used for youth mobilization in Nigeria, finding out the challenges of using the radio for youth mobilization in national politics and determine whether the use of radio for youth mobilization has increased the youths involvement in national politics


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher.


1.4 Definition of Terms

Politics:

The pursuit and exercise of the political process necessary to make binding policy decision for the community and to distribute patronage and government benefits.

Political Mobilization:

Organizing or preparing group of people to take part in political activities, especially the electorate of their rights and the need for full participation in the electoral process.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings to examine the use of radio for youth mobilization in national politics using mass communication students of Novena university as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the use of radio for youth mobilization in national politics using mass communication students of Novena university as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to find out the extent youths utilizes radio, determine whether the youths are able to access political information through the radio, determine the extent the radio is used for youth mobilization in Nigeria, and determine whether the use of radio for youth mobilization has increased the youths involvement in national politics.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are mass communication students of Novena university.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The extent youths utilizes radio is low.
  2. The youths are able to access political information through the radio.
  3. The extent the radio is used for youth mobilization in Nigeria is low.
  4. The use of radio for youth mobilization has increased the youths involvement in national politics.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. To ensure effective, efficient and un-biased political mobilization by the mass media, there should be completely total autonomy, which will in turn ensure a free and independent press.
  2. It is the researcher’s opinion that the independence of the media can go a long way to make things right and purposeful in political mobilization by the media to the general public benefit.
  3. Media workers and journalist should be encouraged or motivated through giving adequate remuneration to boost their morals put in their best in their undertaking.
  4. Journalist should be allowed to go for training to develop their skills and potentials, and sometimes send abroad to gain exposure.
  5. Government should increase allocation of funds to the communication information ministries so as to enable radio stations carry out more effective programmes on political mobilization.
  6. The media should pick up the task to produce radio mobilization programmes that will help to enhance political participation.
  7. Non- governmental organizations (NGO) should also pick up the task to produce radio mobilizational programmes that will help promote political participation and peaceful election.
  8. These mobilization programmes should be repackage with the involvement of local languages so as to reach the rural areas.

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