Quality Care; A Tool In Enhancing Patient’s Inflow In Primary Health Centers

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Quality Care; A Tool In Enhancing Patient’s Inflow In Primary Health Centers


Abstract


This study was carried out on quality care: a tool in enhancing patient inflow in primary health care using selected primary health centers in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of healthcare workers in the 6 selected primary healthcare in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The result of the findings reveals that the extent for which quality health care is provided in primary healthcare in Nigeria is low.The study also revealed that the unavailability of qualified heath workers affects patients inflow in primary health care. Furthermore, the study revealed that the unavailability of effective health facilities affects patients inflow in primary health care. Therefore, the establishment of a national reference for patient-reported experiences of PHC, conduct of periodic nationwide patient surveys, comparing quality of services between PHC providers and utilizing findings for continuous quality improvement are recommended. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Primary health care is largely considered as the most cost-effective option for delivering critical health treatments, such as maternity and child mortality reduction (Olusegun 2019). Primary health care, according to Hamilton (2018), “addresses the community’s primary health problems by providing promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services; it relies, at the local and referral levels, on health workers, including physicians, nurses, midwives, auxiliaries, and community workers as applicable, as well as traditional practitioners as needed, who are suitably trained socially and technically to work as a health team and to respond appropriately.”

Etim (2018) notes that the primary health care (PHC) aim was to ensure universal access to health care by the year 2000 and beyond. Regrettably, this has yet to be realized in Nigeria and appears implausible in the next decade. The PHC’s mission is to provide basic health care to the world’s population. Though primary health care facilities were developed in both rural and urban regions of Nigeria with the goal of ensuring fairness and ease of access, rural residents in Nigeria remain significantly underserved when compared to metropolitan ones. Around two-thirds of Nigerians live in rural regions, and as such, they require access to all components of PHC (Etim 2018).

All Nigerian residents have a basic right to good health. While primary health care (PHC) clinics are fairly evenly dispersed across Nigeria’s local government areas (LGAs), rural residents frequently underutilize basic health services. The blame for sustaining the current low utilization of PHC services may be traced back to a shortage of health professionals. According to Olusegun (2019), accountable health staff can help create a new social order based on increased equality and human dignity, in which health for all by 2015, including rural populations, will no longer be a pipe dream. Capacity development and empowerment of communities through orientation, mobilization, and community organization in terms of training, information sharing, and ongoing discussion might help rural people utilize PHC services more effectively.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

According to Abubakar, Basiru, Oluyemi, et al. (2019) the prevailing child mortality rate in developing countries is because many people do not have access to health care services especially the rural dwellers and to those who have access, the cost is usually very high. The low child health status and poor uptake of interventions designed to promote quality birth delivery in Nigeria are largely attributable to poor antenatal care (ANC) practices, lack of access to and weak health systems. The situation is further aggravated by poverty and ignorance, which account for women’s inability to access critical ANC services and counseling on important safety measures, drugs and other interventions like ITN use (Onokerhoraye, 2000). In many cases, medical facilities are few and thinly spread. In the hard to reach rural areas, with difficult terrain and poor road network, modern health facilities are luxuries the dwellers can hardly afford, even when they wish (Uzochukwu, Ughasoro, Etiaba, Okwuosa, Envuladu, Onwujekwe 2019). Attendance at ante natal clinics (ANC) is very poor for a number of personal and logistic issues confronting mothers especially with respect to distance, means of transport and sometimes attitude of health staff. Above all, the cost of health care is usually very high and the common citizens, most times cannot afford it.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine quality care: a tool in enhancing patient inflow in primary health care. Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To ascertain the extent to which quality health care is provided in primary healthcare in Nigeria.
  2. To determine whether the unavailability of qualified heath workers affects patient inflow in primary health care.
  3. To examine whether the unavailability of effective health facilities affects patient inflow in primary health care.
  4. To examine whether the attitude of health workers affects patient inflow in primary health care.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide this study:

  1. To what extent is quality health care provided in primary healthcare in Nigeria?
  2. Does the unavailability of qualified heath workers affects patient inflow in primary health care?
  3. Does the unavailability of effective health facilities affects patient inflow in primary health care?
  4. Does the attitude of health workers affects patient inflow in primary health care?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great significance to the society as the findings of this study will reveal the determinants of quality health care.

This study will also be important to the leaders, hospital administrators and policy makers as the findings of this study will also reveal the causes of high health care cost thus aiding them to work on the causes and enact effective policies that will tackle these causes.

Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for further studies and future references.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on examining quality care: a tool in enhancing patient inflow in primary health care. Specifically, it is focused on ascertaining the extent to which quality health care is provided in primary healthcare in Nigeria, determining whether the unavailability of qualified heath workers affects patient inflow in primary health care, examining whether the unavailability of effective health facilities affects patient inflow in primary health care and examine whether the attitude of health workers affects patient inflow in primary health care.

Selected staff of primary health care centre, Uyo will be used as respondents for the survey of this study.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study is limited to examining quality care: a tool in enhancing patient inflow in primary health care. Specifically, it is limited to ascertaining the extent to which quality health care is provided in primary healthcare in Nigeria, determining whether the availability of qualified heath workers affects patient inflow in primary health care, examining whether the availability of effective health facilities affects patient inflow in primary health care and examine whether the attitude of health workers affects patient inflow in primary health care.

Selected staff of primary health care centre, Uyo will be used as respondents for the survey of this study, thus this serves as a delimitation to this study as additional and adequate research is needed if this work is to be used anywhere else.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence.

Healthcare:

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, amelioration, or cure of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in people.

Health care is delivered by health professionals and allied health fields.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on quality care: a tool in enhancing patient inflow in primary health care using selected primary health centers in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to examine the extent of quality health care in Nigeria, determine whether the availability of qualified heath workers affects patient inflow in primary health care, examine whether the availability of effective health facilities affects patient inflow in primary health care, and examine whether the attitude of health workers affects patient inflow in primary health care.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were workers in the 6 selected primary healthcare in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent for which quality health care is provided in primary healthcare in Nigeria is low.
  2. The unavailability of qualified heath workers affects patients inflow in primary health care.
  3. The unavailability of effective health facilities affects patients inflow in primary health care.
  4. The attitude of health workers affects patients inflow in primary health care.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. A number of factors are driving the the quality of health care. What is even more problematic is the rise in prices and overall expenditures does not deliver commensurate results. It is important to not only try to address the underlying cost drivers, but also to engage patients to take owner- ship of their own health.
  2. A transformation promoting real and lasting solutions is required to contain costs and improve outcomes. A data-driven, patient-centered system with a payment system based on value rather than a menu of services could potentially help deliver high-quality and cost-efficient health care.
  3. The establishment of a national reference for patient-reported experiences of PHC, conduct of periodic nationwide patient surveys, comparing quality of services between PHC providers and utilizing findings for continuous quality improvement are recommended.
  4. Healthcare workers should be oriented on the right attitude and communication strategy to be used on patients so as to avoid dissatisfaction of patients.

Quality Care; A Tool In Enhancing Patient’s Inflow In Primary Health Centers


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