Compliance Of Clients To Dietary Regimen Among Diabetic Patients

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Compliance Of Clients To Dietary Regimen Among Diabetic Patients


Abstract


This research work examined the factors influencing Compliance to dietary regimen diabetes patient in Lautech Teaching Hospital Osogbo. The study was carried out using descriptive design. A self-designed questionnaire having three number of section, section A is the demographic Data containing seven items, section B is the knowledge on Diabetes and perception of dietary regimen containing Twenty-three items and section family support which contains six items, was administered to one hundred and nine (109) respondents that was chosen using purposive sampling technique. The finding shows that gender and type of management were not significantly associated with level of compliance to dietary regimen. Similarly, it also revealed that educational status, family support and socio-economics status were significant to compliance to dietary regimen among, diabetes mellitus patient.Sequel to the findings of this research, it was concluded that all efforts should be made to address factors like level of education, family support and socio-economic status etc., that influence the level of compliance of respondents toward there dietary the level of compliance of respondents toward there dietary regimen.

 


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objective Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.1.1 The Meaning Of D.M.
  • 2.1.2 Causes Of D.M.
  • 2.1.3 Pathophysiology Of D.M.
  • 2.1.4 Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2.1.5 Diagnosis
  • 2.1.6 Classification
  • 2.1.7 Treatment Of D.M.
  • 2.1.8 Dietary Management Of D.M.
  • 2.1.9 Nutritional Care
  • 2.1.10 Complications Of D.M.
  • 2.1.11 Hyperglycemia Hyperosomolar States (HHSS)
  • 2.2 Empirical Literature Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Setting
  • 3.3 Target Population
  • 3.4 Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Instrument For Data Collection

Chapter Four

4.0 Result And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is derived from the Greek word ‘Diabeinnein’ meaning ‘To pass through’ describing copious urination, and Mellitus from the latin word meaning ‘sweetened with honey’ These two words signify sweetened urine or sugar in urine. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disease characterized by increased levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycaemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both (American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2009). Normally, a certain amount of glucose circulates in the blood. The major sources of this glucose are absorption of ingested food in the gastro-intestinal tract and formation of glucose by the liver from food substances.

According to the (world Health Organization (WHO, 2008) DM, is a disease that occurs both in developed and developing countries. In developing countries like Nigeria DM affects over 1.5million people and in developed countries life in the United States more than 23 million people have diabetes mellitus, although about, one third of these cases are undiagnosed. In developed Countries, most patients having DM are over Sixty years of age but in developing Countries, diabetes mellitus is found to affect people in their prime. The number of people newly diagnosed with DM increases by about 1 million people per year (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2008).By 2030, the number of cases is expected to exceed 30 million. (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2008).

In 2000, the world estimate of the prevalence of DM was 171 million people and by 2030, this is expected to increase to more than 360 million. DM is especially prevalent in the elderly, as many as 50% of people older than 65 years and older account for almost 40% of people with DM (WHO, 2008).Minority of the populations are disproportionately affected by DM from 1980 through 2002, the age – adjusted prevalence of DM increased among all gender and race group but compared to Cavcasian, African. Americans and members of other racial and Americans are more likely to develop DM and they are at greater risk for many of the complications and have higher death rate due to DM (CDC, 2008). MD has far reaching and devastating physical, social and economic consequences including the following (Smeltzer & Bare 2008).

  1. DM is the leading cause of non traumatic amputations, blindness in working age adults and end-stage renal disease (CDC 2008).
  2. DM is the third leading causes of death from disease, primarily because of the high rate of cardio vascular disease (myocardial infection, stroke and peripheral vascular disease among people with DM)
  3. Hospitalization rates for people with DM are 2.4 times greater for adults and 5.3 greater for children than for the general population.

The economic cost of DM continues to increase because of increasing health care costs and an aging population of half of all people who have DM are older than 65 years of age and are hospitalized each year because of the severe and life threatening complications which often contribute to the increased rate of hospitalization.

One can decide to carry out a research due to hunt having gone through these studies. I have seen that the kind of management given to diabetes client when been admitted into the hospital, they still come back to the hospital within a very short of time with one complain or the other. This prompted me to research the factors influencing the level of compliance to dietary regimen among diabetes patient in LAUTECH teaching hospital Osogbo.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

It has been discovered that majority of D.M patient having being discharged, within a short time they come back to the hospital either for problem or a complication associated with DM, and it has been discovered that majority of the D.M patient may either refuse to comply with the dietary regimen or find it difficult to purchase or cook the prescribed dietary regimen therefore this research seeks to assess the compliance of clients to dietary regimen among diabetic patients.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

The objective of the study is to

  1. Identify medical factors that are associated with compliance to dietary regimen.
  2. Examine the factors that are associated with compliance along the gender variables.
  3. Examine the support of significant others towards compliances with dietary regimen.
  4. Identify the factors that are associated with compliance with dietary regiment through the level of education.
  5. Examine the influence of socio-economic status towards compliance to dietary regimen.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the medical factors that are associated with compliance to dietary regimen?
  2. What are the factors that are associated with compliance along the gender variables?
  3. What is the level of the support of significant others towards compliances with dietary regimen?
  4. What are the factors that are associated with compliance with dietary regiment through the level of education?
  5. What is the influence of socio-economic status towards compliance to dietary regimen?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

For this study 5 null hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significant.

HO1: There is no significant relationship between the level of compliance to dietary regimen and the educational status of respondent.

HO2: There is no significant relationship between sex and level of compliance to dietary regimen.

HO3: There is no significant relationship between level of compliance to dietary regimen and the level of family support.

HO4: There is no significant relationship between socio-economic status and level of compliance to dietary regimen among respondents.

HO5: There is no significant difference in the level of compliance to dietary regimen and other treatment modalities among respondents.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

  1. The result of the research will be communicated to the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital in order to have a policy on the compliance of client to dietary regimen at the diabetic clinic.
  2. It will reduce the alarming incidence of complications due to non-compliance to dietary regimen.
  3. It will enlighten diabetic client on the need for compliance to dietary regimen and to improve their attendance at diabetic clinic.
  4. The outcome of the study shall also contribute to existing knowledge in planning nursing care and health education programmes for patients with diabetes mellitus.

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This result has shown that the treatment of diabetic mellitus should be mult faceted in the sense that no single approach of management can result in adequate management of the patient. Therefore, drug management/therapy, exercise, and dietary regimen should come into play in managing patient with diabetes mellitus.

Also, in other to enforce compliance to dietary management economic status, demographic variables and level of education of patient should be taken into cognizant. If this therapeutic indices/method are use holistically the patient will be relied / the clinical manifestations of diabetes mellitus will be controlled to the barest minimum of it cannot be eliminated.


5.2 Recommendation

In view of the finding of the study, the researcher therefore recommends the following:

  1. That all efforts should be intensified on the education of diabetic patient and the society as a whole on the importance of compliance to dietary regimen.
  2. That health workers especially the physicians, nurse and nutritionist, social workers should health educate diabetic patient on the importance and implication / complication of non – compliance to dietary regimen.
  3. That foods that consume less time to be prepared and that are readily available should be prescribed to prevent them from spending much time and energy in preparing those foods.
  4. That the government should subsidize or make those foods readily available for the diabetic patient at a charge prize they will be able to afford.
  5. Patient on diet should be advice to adhere to the drug regimen and take there medications as prescribed, on time and always adhered to dietary regimen to have better glycaemic control compared with others.
  6. There is need to consider the source of income of client so as to know if they will be able to comply with the treatment regimen given to them.
  7. The level of family support of the patient should be consider before setting basis for there treatment.
  8. The lack of educational status of client should be considered in other to enforce compliances.
  9. Gender variable should not compromise the care to be given to the client management of diabetes mellitus should be carried out irrespective of sex differences.

Compliance Of Clients To Dietary Regimen Among Diabetic Patients


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