GPS And GPRS Based Tele Monitoring System For Emergency Patient Transportation (A Case Study Of The Emergency Unit Of Mater Misericordiae Hospital Afikpo)

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

GPS And GPRS Based Tele Monitoring System For Emergency Patient Transportation (A Case Study Of The Emergency Unit Of Mater Misericordiae Hospital Afikpo)


Abstract


Telemonitoring during the golden hour of patient transportation helps in improved Medicare. Presently there are different physiological data acquisition and transmission systems using cellular network and radio communication links. Location monitoring systems and video transmission systems are also commercially available. The emergency patient transportation systems uniquely require transmission of data pertaining to the patient, vehicle, time of the call, physiological signals like ECG, blood pressure body temperature, blood oxygen saturation, and location information. These requirements are presently met by using separate communication systems for physiological data and location that result in lot of inconvenience to the technicians, maintenance related issues, in addition to being expensive. This project presents design, development and implementation of such a telemonitoring system for emergency patient transportation using visual basic 6.0. This system is found to be very useful for emergency patient transportation being undertaken by organizations like Mater Misericordae Hospital Afikpo.


Table of Contents


  • Cover Page
  • Title Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Background of the study
  • 1.3 Statement of the study
  • 1.4 Objective of the study
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 The current state of Telemonitoring
  • 2.2 Review of GPS
  • 2.3 Access to the emergency medical system
  • 2.4 Emergency Rescue System
  • 2.5 Pre-hospital Medical care

Chapter Three:

System Analysis

  • 3.1 General Analysis of the existing system
  • 3.2 Method of data collection
  • 3.3 Input Analysis
  • 3.4 Process Analysis
  • 3.5 Output Analysis
  • 3.6 Problems of the current system
  • 3.7 Justification for the new system

Chapter Four:

System Design

  • 4.1 Design Standards
  • 4.2 Output specification and design
  • 4.3 Input specification and design
  • 4.4 File Design
  • 4.5 Main Menu Design
  • 4.6 System Flowchart
  • 4.7 Program flowchart
  • 4.8 System Requirement
  • 4.9 System software requirement
  • 4.10 Choice of programming language

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References.

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Telemonitoring is a medical practice that involves remotely monitoring patients who are not at the same location as the health care provider. In general, a patient will have a number of monitoring devices at home and the result of these devices will be transmitted via a telephone to the health care provider.

A Telemonitoring system incorporates innovation technology with in-home, self-monitoring assistances to collect real time updates regarding your loved ones vital signs. The self-monitoring test result are captured and transmitted to a central database that stores the information that can be accessed remotely by the patient, family and their healthcare team. Actions and modifications can be made with the results and can be utilized for on-going care recommendations.

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a data transfer specification used by the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) networks. The GPRS system makes use of the entire coverage area and frequency of its host networks to transmit data packets. Data packets are segments of data sent between computers or network devices. The GPRS system provide subscribers uninterrupted data connection instead of a dial-up connection.

Global Positioning System (GPS) is a navigation system for portable devices. It uses a network of satellites surrounding the planet. A compactible device such bas a smartphone or a dedicated navigation device has a built-in receiver chip that picks up regular signals from the satellites. Each signal is time-coded so the device can calculate how far away it is from the satellite based on the time the signal takes to arrive. By combining the distances from at least four satellites, the device can calculate its position to within a few feet. It can also cross-reference this with map data to provide navigation such as driving directions.

Emergency patient Transportation is handled with an ambulance which is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury especially in emergency and I some instance will provide out-of-hospital medical care to the patient.


1.2 Background of Study

Mater Misericordiae hospital, Afikpo is a voluntary agency built and opened by catholic bishop of Abakaliki diocese, Late Bishop Thomas Macgettrick in1946 with 24beds which has evolved over the years to 300beds. It is now managed by the Catholic Diocese of Abakaliki under the proprietor, His |Lordship most rev. Dr. Michael Nnachi Okoro, heading the hospital board which supervises and coordinates the activities of the hospital.

The hospital stands on 18.5 acres of undulating land leased to her since 1946 by the people of Evuma and Ugwuegu in Afikpo North Local Government Area Ebonyi State. It is situated away from the centre of Afikpo town, but with easy accessible road network.

The hospital has a large theatre and most of the latest medical equipments needed to serve you better. Most of these equipments are rarely seen in private hospitals around and even the public ones. It also has ambulances and other buses to facilitate the work in the hospital.


1.3 Statement of the Problem

The number of road accidents victims in every busy city like Afikpo(with the presence of a higher institution) can be unimaginable. Immediate medical attention to critically ill patients and accident victims followed by transportation to a well equipped local facility within the golden hour can save many lives.

Ambulances are specifically designed to carry emergency drugs and instruments. The inner area of an ambulance is fabricated in such a way that it houses emergency medicine, sterilizer, stretcher and so forth. The personnel inside the ambulances are specially trained to be emergency technicians. There exist a need to augment the skill of such paramedics with the Central Monitoring Station(CNS). The CNS helps in identifying the nearest and appropriate hospital and coordinating with the medical personnel of the hospital.


1.4 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this project work is to design and implement a system that cater the specific requirement of acquiring physiological data, keyed-in data, patient snapshot, and voice signals and transmitting them using a cellular network to a Central Monitoring Station that helps in identifying the nearest and appropriate hospital and coordinating with the medical personnel of that hospital. Placing the system in an equipped ambulance that can take vital signs, assess oxygen saturation, monitor blood pressure etc. that will reduce the risk of death involved in Emergency Patient transportation.

The aim of this work is to design a data transfer and navigation system into a telemonitoring system for the purpose of facilitating information passage between the operators of the telemonitoring system and ambulance drivers in Mater Misericordiae Hospital for the emergency transportation of patients.


1.5 Scope of the Study

The extent to be covered in this project work is limited to the confines of he emergency unit of Mater Misericordiae Hospital Afikpo, which is well equipped with modern day ambulances and equipment, but with more researches in this project topic, it can be used in all hospitals with emergency unit and ambulances to reduce the rate of deaths in emergency situations.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Implementation of a GPS and GPRS based telemonitoring system for emergence patient transportation will be of immense benefit to the hospital. The system will assist the hospital achieve the following:

  1. Improve the communication between the staff of the ambulance and the central monitoring station records
  2. The doctor will understand the physical and physiological condition of the patient better so that right decision regarding administration of drugs and transport destination can be appropriately taken
  3. Administrative requirements including the location of the vehicle, patientโ€™s attendance details can easily be retrieved.

1.7 Limitations

Due to the cost of material for implementing the hardware aspect of this project, the researcher was limited by financial and time constraints. So the system developed was a simulation of the GPS and GPRS based telemonitoring system for emergency patients.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Virtual:

Almost or nearly as described, not physically existing as such but made by software to appear to do so.

Graphics:

These are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data.

2-D:

An electronic maps of the area that usually highlight the path to follow and the current position of the user.

3-D:

This is a three dimensional computer graphics of an area

GPS:

This an Acronym for Global Positioning System and it is amodern tracking system.

Maps:

A diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities roads etc.

Navigation:

The process or activity of navigating.

Smartphone:

A mobile phone which incorporates a palmtop computer or PDA


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This research work focuses on the use of computer system with reference to GPS and GPRS based telemonitoring information system. The design covers registration processes and the retrieval of information from the database. Centralized database was used in the design of the emergency database for the purpose of data sharing among the relevant authorities. Structural Query Language was used in the query of the database.

The work also covers the manual system of opertions as regards the problems identified, stating the aims of the new system, stating the various specifications and then implementing the programs. The work was successufully developed using VB.Net, a user- friendly programming language, and the package was tested and improved upon which yields an automated system for registering child care information, recording the daily attendance and departure time of the child.

The project work cannot be said to be perfect, but however, its benefits cannot be overemphasized. It has led to the improvement in the speed of processing operation, efficiency, accuracy and improved storage of data. Hospital stands to benefit from the new system as it will make their records to be easily accessible and accurate.


5.2 Conclusion

The ambulance electronics system, consisting of ARM 9 microcontroller has been designed, fabricated and tested. The prototype has proved that it is possible to integrate and deploy an integrated medical data acquisition system, administrative data collection system and communication system that is cost effective as well as life saving. An engineered model, based on this prototype can be built and installed in the ambulances engaged for patient transportation. Engineered models, when installed in the ambulances, will enhance the capability of emergency patient transportation organizations in terms reduction in time to reach the nearest hospital and extending timely pre-hospital medicare. The features of the system can be enhanced to meet the requirements from time to time based on the experience gained while using the system.

There has been a significant change in the heart rate of the subjects between the two locations. The changes in physiological parameters might be attributed to the difference in altitude (about 150 meters)between the two locations. As the data has been recorded from a small and healthy group of subjects, further work on a much larger database is required to establish the results obtained in this study regarding the effect of location on physiological parameters. Hence to derive more useful conclusions, larger group of subjects, both normal and abnormal, with different age groups have to be studied. This work can be extended by taking the recordings at different geographical locations. Diagnostically significant information could be extracted and the effect of location (as obtained by GPS receiver) on physiological parameters could be identified more successfully. Critically ill patients can be warned about moving to high altitude locations. The system developed here is a product of extensive need-based research projected by government and non government organizations engaged in emergency patient transportation. Different manufacturers provide data in different formats. One cannot employ systems from different manufacturers in the same project, as interoperability becomes difficult. They do not provide the data that can be easily read by scientific software for further processing. The system, as it provides data in text format, alleviates all such problems. Such a system will also avoid dependence on proprietary software to store and process the data.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the achieved objective of this project and the experiences gained during its designed and implementation, I wish to make the following recommendations for future improvement.

  1. That information technology should be adopted by hospital for managing their records
  2. Hospital should be encouraged to implement the software developed in this project
  3. Further research should be carried out in this area and a new design that will enable online access of database and integration of all the emergency information system for the country.

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