Perception Of Nursing Students On The Effectiveness Of Nursing Process In Clinical Practice Using University Of Calabar Teaching Hospital As A Case Study

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Perception Of Nursing Students On The Effectiveness Of Nursing Process In Clinical Practice Using University Of Calabar Teaching Hospital As A Case Study


Abstract


This study assesses the perception of nursing students on the effectiveness of nursing process in clinical practice. Specifically, the study determines whether nursing practice is an important clinical practice for nursing students, finds out whether nursing process in clinical practice is always an effective training tool for nursing students, investigates the perception of nursing students about nursing process in clinical practice and finds out challenges encountered by during nursing process in clinical practice. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 50 responses were validated from the survey. The study anchors on the Orlando’s nursing process theory. From the responses obtained and analysed using frequency tables, while the hypothesis was tested using Chi-square statistical tool.The findings reveals that the nursing process is an important clinical practice for nursing students. Furthermore, the findings revealsthat the nursing process in clinical practice is always an effective training tool for nursing students. The study recommendsthat there should be periodic workshops and seminars on the nursing process, in order for nursing tutors to equip them with the needed skills and confidence to value and teach the nursing process. This would lead to a better understanding of nursing students on how they can put the acquired knowledge into practice after their completion of school.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Descriptive Analysis

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The development of novel medical conditions and shifting need for health care are both caused by improvements in technology. With each passing day, there is a greater need for nursing care that is of very high quality. The level of patient happiness and the overall level of health are both improved when nursing care services are of a higher quality. As a result, nurses are obligated to deliver high-quality care for their patients by using information that is as current as possible (Wesley, 2016)..

The use of methodical scientific processes and in-depth theoretical understanding are the foundations of high-caliber nursing care. The nursing process is a methodical approach to problem solving that nurses use to determine an individual’s health care requirements, whether that individual is well or sick, and to provide individualized care.

The nursing process is the single most significant instrument for putting nursing knowledge into practice. It is advised that a scientific technique be used to guide the quality of nursing care and nursing practices. This method should be the nursing process. The person who is getting care, the nurse, and the nursing student all stand to gain from the nursing process in a number of important ways..

Assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation are the five phases of the nursing process (Aserati et al., 2014). The nursing process is a systematic problem-solving approach used in nursing care. The procedure serves as the scientific foundation for nursing care and is expected to guide nursing practice in the provision of care to patients (Tadzong-Awasum & Dufashwenayesu, 2021; Osman, Ninnoni, & Anim, 2021). In nursing practice, the nursing process should be employed deliberately through critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and decision making in order to meet patients’ health care requirements..

Given that it originated elsewhere, research into the nursing process is essential for nursing practice on the African continent. The nursing process is necessary for a number of reasons, the most essential being that it is the foundation of nursing’s professional standing (Semachew, 2018). Standardizing nursing care through the nursing process improves communication and continuity of care (Adraro and Mengistu, 2020; Agyeman-Yeboah et al., 2017; Akhtar et al., 2018). The nursing process, when utilized effectively, can facilitate the provision of holistic, high-quality nursing care and enhance patient outcomes (Shewangizaw & Mersha, 2015; Shiferaw et al., 2020; Mondragón-Hernández & Sosa-Rosa, 2019; Adraro & Mengistu, 2020; Yilmaz et al., 2015; Wagoro & Rakuom, 2015). In addition, the nursing process provides a framework for the development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and knowledge (Hagos et al., 2014; Akhtar et al., 2018)..

Teaching and learning in the clinical setting are integral components of nursing education. The majority of clinical teaching and learning takes place in healthcare institutions’ clinical settings, where theory is translated into practice. Although the clinical environment is a significant place to employ classroom-learned theories, there is a significant divide between theory and practice application. The effective implementation of theory to practice depends on a number of factors, including the development of learning opportunities for students and preceptor support (Scherb, & Smith, 2019)..

The nursing process ensures that individual-centered care is provided in accordance with a plan and that time is utilized more efficiently, while promoting communication among team members and enhancing the quality of nursing care by providing written resources and evidence for nursing education and research. Additionally, it encourages critical thinking, creativity, problem solving, and decision making in clinical practice. Providing care through the use of nursing process improves the quality of care and, consequently, the level of satisfaction of those who receive care.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The nursing process is underutilized in Sub-Saharan Africa despite its acknowledged importance to nursing practice (Baraki et al., 2017, Ojewole and Samole, 2017, Folami et al., 2019, Osman et al., 2021, Berman et al., 2016; Tadzong-Awasum & Dufashwenayesu, 2021; Miskir & Emishaw, 2018). This underutilisation has been attributed to a number of factors, including a lack of resources, insufficient personnel, and limited time (Agyeman-Yeboah et al., 2017, Adraro and Mengistu, 2020, Osman et al., 2021, Mwangi et al., 2019). A lack of knowledge and skills among nurses has also contributed to the ineffective implementation of the process (Hagos et al., 2014; Mutshatshi et al., 2020).

There are also differing opinions among nursing students and nurses regarding the usefulness of the nursing process in nursing care (Yilmaz et al., 2015; Mondragón-Hernández and Sosa-Rosa, 2019; Akhtar et al., 2018)..
Existing research is primarily concerned with the application of the nursing process in clinical practice, as opposed to how nursing students are educated on it (Agyeman-Yeboah, Korsah, and Okrah, 2017). Nonetheless, it is evident that nurses have insufficient knowledge and a theory/practice divide in the application of the nursing process (Mwangi et al., 2019). Abdelkader and Othman (2017) and Mondragón-Hernández and Sosa-Rosa (2019) provide some evidence that enhancing nurses’ knowledge and skills regarding the nursing process can increase utilization.

As a consequence, the nursing education system must adequately prepare students in the use of the nursing process, with the expectation that enhanced education will lead to a more effective application of the process.
The majority of nurses’ knowledge and abilities regarding the nursing process are the result of their theoretical education, practical training, and work experience. Clinical learning is anticipated to occur in hospitals and clinics with the assistance of trained nurses (Atakro et al., 2019). Theoretical learning takes place in the classroom or online with professors. Those who have learning environments that are conducive to the nursing process may experience it differently than others, and as a result, may develop distinct perceptions and attitudes regarding the process. By identifying the experiences and perceptions of student nurses, we are able to identify the factors that make it difficult for students to learn and influence their attitudes toward the nursing process.

In Nigeria, the nursing process is incorporated into the general nursing science module and is a component of hospital nursing care. Students are instructed in the theory of the nursing process and are expected to develop their skills with the assistance of nurses in a hospital setting. Students are expected to learn from a variety of nurses in hospitals with limited support from their lecturers and other clinical instructors. It is presently unknown what nursing students’ perceptions and experiences are regarding the nursing process.

Most studies on the nursing process have been conducted among professional nurses, neglecting the opinions of the student nurses thus this study seeks to examine the effectiveness of nursing process in clinical practice: an assessment of nursing students perception.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to assess the perception of nursing students on the effectiveness of nursing process in clinical practice. Specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine whether nursing practice is an important clinical practice for nursing students.
  2. To find out whether nursing process in clinical practice is always an effective training tool for nursing students.
  3. To investigate the perception of nursing students about nursing process in clinical practice.
  4. To find out challenges encountered by during nursing process in clinical practice.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Is nursing practice an important clinical practice for nursing students?
  2. Is nursing process in clinical practice always an effective training tool for nursing students?
  3. What are the perception of nursing students about nursing process in clinical practice?
  4. What are the challenges encountered by during nursing process in clinical practice?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Nursing process in clinical practice is not required for an effective training of nursing students.
  • Ha: Nursing process in clinical practice is not required for an effective training of nursing students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study findings may be used as the basis for strengthening the theoretical and practical teaching of the nursing process. Nurse educators could use these findings to play an active role in improving their knowledge and skills regarding the nursing process, as well as strengthen both the theoretical and clinical teaching of the nursing process. Hospital administrators and managers in teaching hospitals should consider providing support in terms of introducing policies that support the use of, and educate nurses on, the nursing process. This may help with the implementation of the nursing process and ultimately improve the nursing education of students. Further research should focus on quantitatively assessing students’ knowledge and clinical learning of the nursing process.


1.7 Scope of the Study

Broadly, this study focuses on the perception of nursing students on the effectiveness of nursing process in clinical practice. Specifically, this study focuses on determining whether nursing practice is an important clinical practice for nursing students, finding out whether nursing process in clinical practice is always an effective training tool for nursing students, investigating the perception of nursing students about nursing process in clinical practice and finding out challenges encountered by during nursing process in clinical practice.
Geographically, this study will be carried out in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.

Also, the study was only undertaken at one hospital, hence the results can only be applied to this specific hospital. A study covering more than one hospital would have given a more comprehensive picture of nursing students’ perceptions and experiences with regards to the utilisation of the nursing process in clinical practice.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Nursing:

Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. They also take on vital roles of education, assessing situations, as support.

Nursing process:

The nursing process functions as a systematic guide to client-centered care with 5 sequential steps. These are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the perception of nursing students on the effectiveness of nursing process in clinical practice using University of Calabar Teaching Hospital as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the perception of nursing students on the effectiveness of nursing process in clinical practice using University of Calabar Teaching Hospital as a case study. The study was specifically carried out todetermine whether nursing practice is an important clinical practice for nursing students, find out whether nursing process in clinical practice is always an effective training tool for nursing students, investigate the perception of nursing students about nursing process in clinical practiceand find out challenges encountered by during nursing process in clinical practice.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent wereselected nurses in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The nursing process is an important clinical practice for nursing students.
  2. The nursing process in clinical practice is always an effective training tool for nursing students.
  3. The perception of nursing students about nursing process in clinical practice include:
    1. Lack of understanding of the nursing process,
    2. Nursing process is not constantly used,
    3. There is a gap between theory and practice and
    4. The process is very beneficial
  4. The challenges encountered by during nursing process in clinical practice include:
    1. Lack of further nursing process training,
    2. Absence of monitoring & supervision,
    3. Inadequate nursing staff numbers,
    4. Lack of managerial support and
    5. The non-availability of the care plan forms in the ward

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There should be periodic workshops and seminars on the nursing process, in order for nursing tutors to equip them with the needed skills and confidence to value and teach the nursing process. This would lead to a better understanding of nursing students on how they can put the acquired knowledge into practice after their completion of school.
  2. Nurses should embrace positive attitude towards care provision and this can be achieved through peer education and discussions among themselves. With positive attitude, NP implementation is made easier even in the presence of other obstacles.
  3. The hospital management should put strict measures and guidelines in place to ensure that nurses are held accountable for poor quality services including but not limited to non-implementation of NP in nursing care delivery. This can be enhanced through auditing of nurses on NP use in patient management.
  4. Nurses should sensitize patients on the benefits of NP in care delivery through developing a positive and strong therapeutic relationship that will go a long way in enhancing patients’ co-operation. This can be done through individual or group health education

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