Assessment Of Contraceptive Use Among Adolescents In Zarazon Community Of Jos East Local Government Of Plateau State

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Assessment Of Contraceptive Use Among Adolescents In Zarazon Community Of Jos East Local Government Of Plateau State


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess contraceptive use among adolescents in Zarazon community of Jos East Local government of Plateau State.The study was specifically carried out to determine the knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Zarazon community, determine the sources of information about contraceptives among adolescents in Zarazon community, and determine the Contraceptive Methods commonly used by adolescents in Zarazon community. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of some selected secondary school students in Zarazon community of Jos East Local government of Plateau State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Zarazon community is low. Furthermore, the findings showed that the Contraceptive Methods commonly used by adolescents in Zarazon community includes: male and female condoms, oral pills, injectable contraceptives, intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), implants. Therefore, it is recommended that the Ministry of Health should enhance large scale training of service providers in quality care, client follow up, communication skills, counselling, referral and feedback and provision of a wide choice of methods. With good customer care, clients who seek contraceptives will have confidence in the staff which in the process will attract more users while at the same time encouraging further usage on those currently using them. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Contraception is a method adopted in the prevention of pregnancy, it is also known as birth control or fertility control [1]. Contraceptives are used to achieve pregnancy prevention and birth control globally [1]. The use of contraceptives in developed countries, Europe and USA have contributed to a reduced maternal mortality and morbidity among women of reproductive age [2]. However, contraceptive use among women in developing countries is contrastingly poor in comparison to developed countries [3]. The relatively low use of contraceptives and contraception observed in middle and low income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia have been shown to contribute to the high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity inthese regions [4]. It is estimated that approximately 16 million adolescents aged 15 to 19 become pregnant each year, constituting 11% of all births worldwide [5]. Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are consistently the second cause of death for girls aged 15 to 19 years old [5]. Young girls who become pregnant are at high risk of abridged education [6], and thus limited economic prospects [5,7]. About 222 million women who want to avoid pregnancy in developing countries are not using a modern birth control method [8]. Birth control use in developing countries has decreased the number of deaths during or around the time of pregnancy by 40% and could prevent 70% if the full demand for birth control were met [9].Available birth data shows great differences in the rates and prevalence of pregnancy between regions and countries [5]. Factors such as age, social economic status, religious, believes and social exposures have been reported to influence contraceptive use positively or negatively [10].Theaverage rate of teenage births ranges from the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (143 per 1000 adolescent females), followed by the Americas (68), the Middle East and North Africa (56), and East and South Asia and the Pacific (56), to the lowest rates in Europe (25) [5]. Babies of teen mothers are 50% more likely to be stillborn, die early, or develop acute and long-term health problems [5]. In developing countries, maternal mortality is high, with 440 deaths per 100,000 live births, with the figure reaching as high as 920 in sub-Saharan Africa [5]. This study was carried out to assess contraceptive use among adolescents in Zarazon community of Jos East Local government.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The use of contraceptive is essential in preventing unwanted pregnancies, unsafe abortions and abortion related complications that expose adolescent to related health risks such as infertility and sometimes death. The study of Briggs and Peter-Kio 2011 shows that condom is the most popular type of family planning method used; they added however that oral contraceptives and condoms are the method among adolescents between the ages of 15 and 20. The use of condom among sexually active adolescents is more prominent than other method probably because of its dual role prevention of unintended pregnancies as well as prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Condom is everywhere and is sold in roadside medical shops. However, many adolescents prefer unprotected sex to protected sex because of the risk of losing the trust of their partners or lovers as the case may be. There is the feeling that requesting for condoms suggests that fear and lack of trust. Others do not see any satisfaction using it while shyness is the problem for others who associate it with the postulates. With global expansion of contraceptive information and services, contraceptive technologies have continually improved and contraceptive prevalence has risen throughout most of the world. However, access to mainstream contraceptive methods is more limited in sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere; on average contraceptive prevalence in Africa is approximately 27%, less than half the average throughout the world (Bisika, Short, Wontumi, & Truong 2007). Over the years the idea of contraceptives as means of birth control has changed, with some totally opposed and others accepting it.

Traditionally it was not acceptable to fall pregnant before marriage, but cultural norms have shifted and having a teenage pregnancy is now not seen as immoral. In some circles, the idea that adolescents respond to contraceptive use is a forgone conclusion, but determining whether the sexual behaviour can cause contraception is a challenging empirical task. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess contraceptive use among adolescents in Zarazon community of Jos East Local government.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to assess the contraceptive use among adolescents in Zarazon community of Jos East Local government.

Other specific objectives are to:

  1. Determine the knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Plateau State.
  2. Determine the sources of information about contraceptives among adolescents in Plateau State.
  3. Determine the Contraceptive Methods commonly used by adolescents inPlateau State.

1.4 Research Questions

The research will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Plateau State?
  2. What are the sources of information about contraceptives among adolescents in Plateau State?
  3. What are the Contraceptive Methods commonly used by adolescents in Plateau State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Plateau State is high.
  • Ha: The knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Plateau State is low.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the outcome of this study could encourage at the grass root level, creation of awareness on the use of contraceptives for young people.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the contraceptive use among secondary school adolescents in Plateau State.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the contraceptive use among adolescents in Plateau State. Geographically, this study will be carried out in Zarazon community of Jos East Local government of Plateau State. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from secondary school students in Zarazon community of Jos East Local government of Plateau State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Contraceptive:

Hormonal and Barrier Contraception. There are about 15 different types of contraceptives which allow you to enjoy sex without the risk of getting pregnant. These birth control methods include: condoms, the diaphragm, the contraceptive pill, implants, IUDs (intrauterine devices), sterilization and the morning after pill.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the contraceptive use amongadolescents in Zarazon community. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the contraceptive use among adolescents in Zarazon community. The study was specifically carried out to determine the knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Zarazon community, determine the sources of information about contraceptives among adolescents in Zarazon community, and determine the Contraceptive Methods commonly used by adolescents in Zarazon community.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were some selected secondary school adolescents in Zarazon community.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The knowledge level of Contraceptive Methods among adolescents in Zarazon community is low.
  2. The sources of information about contraceptives among adolescents in Zarazon community includes: parents, peers, media, healthcare workers, and partner.
  3. The Contraceptive Methods commonly used by adolescents inZarazon community includes: male and female condoms, oral pills, injectable contraceptives, intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD), implants.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Based on the findings of this study, we recommend that efforts should be intensified to promote safe sexual practice including effective contraceptive use among this age group.
  2. The Ministry of Health should enhance large scale training of service providers in quality care, client follow up, communication skills,counselling, referral and feedback and provision of a wide choice of methods. With good customer care, clients who seek contraceptives will have confidence in the staff which in the process will attract more users while at the same time encouraging further usage on those currently using them.
  3. Creation of advocacy groups at community level is highly recommended. This will not only articulate the rights of the clients, in this case the person who seek contraceptives, but will lead to cultural and attitude change towards the services thereby encouraging their uptake. In the end, this is expected to contribute positively towards a reduction in the total fertility rate as well as decline in population growth rate.
  4. There is a need for SRH integration at the school level and work on the barrier that influences contraceptive use across all levels of influence.

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