Nigerian Government And Politics (A Case Study Of 1999 – 2007 Politics)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Nigerian Government And Politics (A Case Study Of 1999 – 2007 Politics)


Abstract


This project research work describes and analyses the structure of Nigerian government and politics between 1999 and 2007 in other to improve the understanding of the operation of government and politics in Nigeria.

The research also observed that the Nigerian Political System is a federal republic with a presidential system, and that the constitution provides for a separation of powers among the three branches of government.

The first chapter is concerned with the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, hypothesis, and scope of the study, research question and definition of terms.

The second chapter examines the literature review and generally gives a detailed explanation of the term Nigerian Government and Politics.

The third chapter laid emphasis on research methodology, research design, population of the study, sample size, method of data collection, and instrument of data collection and techniques of data analysis.

The fourth chapter focuses on data presentation and data analysis while the fifth chapter highlights on the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigeria is a Federal Republic modeled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the president and with influences from the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. However, the President of Nigeria is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Nigerian politics takes place within a framework of a federal, presidential, representative democratic republic, whereby Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the legislature, the House of Representatives and the Senate. Together the two chambers make up the law-making body in Nigeria called the National Assembly. The highest judiciary arm of government in Nigeria is the Supreme Court of Nigeria. The National Assembly serves as a check on the executive arm of government.


1.2. Statement of the Problem

One of the major problems the researcher observed in this research work is the attitude of constitutional amendment in Nigeria.

The Constitution of the USA for example has been amended for just two times in 230 years. The above situation is completely different from what is happening in Nigeria.

Even before 1999, Nigeria constitution had been amended for over four times. Attempts were also made in 2006 by former President Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration amend the 1999 Constitution again. All this amendment of constitution in Nigeria by our leader is to favour their own selfish desires.

However, the successful implementation of any constitution depends on how much it is respected by those whose duty is to uphold it.

Another problem with Nigerian politics is that; those running the political affair of the country seem not to be politically oriented. And according to Chief Obafemi Awolowo (1956) “Men Sana Incorpo Sano” (people with sound mind and memory) are to be entrusted with the affairs of the public. While most of them did not study political science, public administration or other government and political related course in higher institutions. They are not professional politicians; therefore, they do not make professional decision. A good example is the sudden remover of oil subsidy which brought about a devastating situation in the entire country. Political decision ought to be taken prudently and based on plan.


1.3. Objective of the Study

The objective of this study is basically as follow:

To assess the function and impact of Nigerian government and politics, how it has helped in the development of both in the federal, state and local government level.


1.4. Significance of the Study

The researcher statements of the study can enrich the literature on the Nigerian government and politics and enhance people and student understands of the concept.

This study will be useful to most countries that need to know the nature of government and politics in their country also in their local government and state government.

The president of this country can use the finding and the recommendation of this study to improve the qualities of this country.


1.5 Limitation of the Study

This research work is limit due to some factors:

Time factor:

The time giving is too infinitesimal for me to carry out the project work accurately.

Finance:

This also restraints me in carrying out my research work as being expected.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This project work is designed to cover every aspect that has to do with Nigerian government and politics, it functions and duties. And how the government and politics has impacted the country, organization, institution etc.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Democracy

Democracy can be defined in various ways, but the most popular definition is by Abram Lincoln of America. He defined democracy as the government of the people, by the people and for the people; a form of government that is rule in the interest of majority.

Law

This is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people.

Federal

Of a system in which several states unite under a central authority but are independent in internal affairs.

State

This refers to a legal political entity that is comprise of the following: permanent population, a defined territory, a government and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.

Government

The system or body of law by which a state is governed.

Politics

Politics is a human effort of aspiring for position or power to rule others.

Nationalism

Nationalism is the strong desire or love for one’s nation. It is a strong sentimental attachment to one’s nations (Akamere and Ola)


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of Findings

The course content of Nigerian government and politics has been thoroughly discussed.

Politics and its meaning and how it affects the running of government were thoroughly explained. From the analysis, we could see and understood the term “Government” and its organs and how they function, also the term “Politics and political science as they help in running the affair of government. Several political crises were mentioned with military intervention into Nigerian government and politics.


5.2 Conclusion

Having given the analysis of Nigerian Government and Politics in the area of the branches of government, constitution, electoral system, administrative divisions e.t.c. it is therefore fundamental to draw a line of conclusion by looking finally at the Nigerian Legal system.

Legal System: The law of Nigeria is based on the rule of law and the independence of the Judiciary, and also on the British common law because of the long history of British colonial influence. The legal system is therefore similar to the common law systems used in England and Wales and in other Commonwealth countries. The constitutional framework for the legal system is provided by the Constitution of Nigeria. There are however, four distinct systems of law in Nigeria: English Law, which is derived from its colonial past with Britain; Common law, (case law development since colonial independence); Customary law, which is derived from indigenous traditional norms and practices; Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Hausa and Muslim north of the country. Like the United States, there is a judicial branch with a Supreme Court which is regarded as the highest court of the land.
The general election that was held in February 1999 marked the end of 15 years of military rule and the beginning of civilian rule based on a multiparty democracy.


5.3 Recommendation

At this point, the researcher wish to strongly recommend that Nigerian constitution should be made rigid to avoid unnecessary constitutional amendment by our leaders to suit their selfish desires.

Putting into consideration that political science which is the study of politics helps to study and understand the running of government in order for the affaires of government to be appropriately carried out; I therefore recommend that the study of political science should be essentially handled so as to know more about government and how to run the political affaires of a country.

The issue of Separation of powers, check and balance should be highly given attention to, so that there will not be a misuse of governmental power by any particular organ of government.

Considering the advantages of civilian rule over the military rule, I therefore recommend that civilian rule should continue its place in Nigerian politics so as to perpetuate democratic servitude.


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