International Migration And The Study Of Socio-Economic Development In Nigeria: The Role Of Nigerian Immigration Service
The study examines the duties of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) revealing that the above mentioned agency has the capacity to initiate development and security in the nation-state describing the Nigerian state as a source and destination for migrants. The study revealed the consequences faced by the Nigerian state on International Migration (as a sending state and a receiving state). The study also shows that the agency, Nigerian Immigration Services (NIS) has various challenges, which are the reasons for the level of performance of the agency. The study tends to inform the Nigerian public on the gains and loss of international migration.
This study adopts the ex-post facto research design taking the shape of a qualitative and quantitative research method as questionnaires were administered making use of the spearman’s rank correlation, results were also gotten through the chiquare calculations. Also in checking the validity of the collected data Crobach alpha statistics was adopted. The major findings of this study reveal that the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has some challenges and these challenges hinders the success of this agency in bringing socio-economic development into the Nigerian State . However, for Nigeria to benefit profitably from International Migration, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has to be efficient in her duties and also needs the cooperation of the Nigerian federal government (FG), as it relates to socio-economic development and security functions.
Keywords: Socio-Economic Development, Emigration, Immigration, International Migration, Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS).
1.1 Background to the Study
Since the beginning of creation, humans have always involved themselves in movement activities. This has been a major feature in the history of Africa and the entire globe generally (Akanji, 2012). Migration cannot be inevitable from the history of the story of man, families, villages and nation- state. Therefore, migration can be traced as far back as the existence of man, most especially when man desired to go in search of food during various famine seasons; also another reason for migrating in those days was the desire of separating from the crowd as well as the seeking for independence. As earlier revealed virtually all individuals and nation states have one or two traces of migration history (Internal and international) mostly influenced by two factors these are the “Pull” and “Push” factors. Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration explains the movement of individuals within same geographical territory which in this case can be from rural to urban or from Lagos to Abuja .While, International Migration has to do with the crossing of borders or international boundaries such as Cameroon to Nigeria described as South-South Migration, Nigeria to United States of America described also as South-North Migration. For the sake of this study International Migration as regard South– South Migration also known as Regional Integration and South-North Migration are focused on.
For International Migration (Emigration and Immigration) to take place the sending state, the receiving state and the migrant is involved in the migration process. This is where the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) and various migration policies play a part which is to regulate the migration activities in Nigeria as a destination nation state and a sending nation state. International Migration is a global culture in which a reasonable amount of individuals (nationals) practice.
International Migration (Emigration and Immigration) can be of great benefits to a nation state through agreements and partnerships with others (states) in the international system. As observed from literatures, developing countries engage more in International Migration than the developed countries (International Organization Migration, 2014:4). About 1billion migrants are
around the world presently not residing in their nation state of origin (International Federal Red Cross and Red Crescent, 2012) as these migrants around the globe can make up a 6th nation state after the order of China, Indian, United States of America (USA), Indonesia and Brazil (Martin and Widgren, 2002:3) as people tend to move from a particular place to another for various reasons best known to them also being an essential part of man’s nature (Adeola and Fayomi, 2012:1).
International Migration is said to be at its increase due to the wide spread taught benefits and awareness of opportunities in various countries through various platforms such as the television, internet among other mediums. International Migration (particularly immigration) is a sensitive issue in discussions and debates in the international system. However, this foundation and trend as well as various rising phases of globalization have contributed in influencing the tradition and culture of International Migration in our immediate world. This globalization which has unfolded itself in different phases has raised alarm of great benefits and opportunities around the globe. This benefit ranges from job opportunities, international education certifications, interconnectedness, international relations between countries creating avenue for interdependence most especially in the aspect of manpower (Fayomi, 2013). Other great benefits among them are the pleasure of being a citizen of the nation state individuals so well desire (Martin and widgren, 2002:8). Due to this perceived opportunities International Migration became a popular culture and trend in our present world (Wickramasinghe, 2016:14).
The rate and speed at which International Migration is increasing is alarming as it cannot be completely stopped but can be managed properly to the nation state’s advantage bringing socio-economic development (International Organization Migration, 2004:3). International Migration (emigration and immigration) as a major and popular economic factor can revive a nation state, it has the capacity to develop a nation state through other means such as filling the nation state’s labour force with quality skills and expertise for maximum productivity as earned results. However, International Migration is needed and highly embraced since the combination of individual experts from various cultures and nationality can make a nation state flourish (Kennisgewings, 2016:15). The present 21st century’s experience on International Migration (emigration and immigration) matters is revealed to be the tip of the ice berg as International Migration will keep unfolding and remain on its increase due to the exposure and experiences of migrants with the help of different unfolding phases of globalization (Martin and Widgren, 2002:3). The high increase in demand for labour makes International Migration inevitable, so are the “pull” and the “push” factors of international migration. These factors make individuals (nationals) to desperately desire migrating out of their nation state of origin. This describes International Migration as an activity and also a reaction that makes the migrant unstoppable. However, due to the high increase and desires of migrants to be part of a nation state at all cost or become a resident in their favourite destinations the international system is consciously concerned about this high rate of movements of migrants across borders (Immigration act, 2015). This answers the reasons and questions on why nation states guide their boundaries and entrance gate jealously because without proper control and conduct of these migrants as regard International Migration activities, there will be more unskilled workers and unwanted persons in the nation-state which in turn can cause nuisance resulting to unwanted outcomes (Federal ministry for economic cooperation and development, 2013:9). Skilled migrants are always assets to the receiving nation state (Regan, 2009: 150).
The 1970s and 1980s fortunes derived from Nigeria’s oil sector increased the number of immigrants from the West African neighbouring countries into the Nigerian State (Adeola and Fayomi, 2012:2). The Nigerian state shares borders with Cameroon located at the eastern part of Nigeria, Chad to the Northern part of Nigeria while the South-West Nigeria region is bordered by Benin Republic. The porous borders which are mostly economical to her fellow West African neighbours keeps Nigeria at disadvantage, as they are majorly unprotected thereby threatening the socio-economic development and security of the nation state (Abiodun, 2015) though the movement is perceived to bring peace and unity to West Africans as well as to promote trade which would lead to economic growth of the West African states ECOWAS (Nwagwugwu et al, 2015). In all these, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) plays an important role.
More so, due to the lack of socio-economic development among other reasons in the Nigerian state the issue of emigration has been a trend in Nigeria for graduates, experts and hustlers. The hustlers most especially who are in search for a greener pasture most times walk through the porous borders out of the nation state (Akinyemi, 2013). Nigeria as a nation state through the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has a responsibility if truly she wants to enjoy the positive aspect of International Migration (emigration and immigration) as the developed world presently enjoys. As earlier revealed, the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) plays a peculiar role in the management of International Migration activities (emigration and immigration) as linked to the socio economic development and security of the Nigerian state. Effective duties carried out by this agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) can generate a reasonable level of socio economic development, it can initiate better quality of life and security since the agency is regarded as the gate keeper of the nation-state (Ministry of interior, 2016 and Evans, 2016:12).
The agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) was created out of the Nigerian Police Force (NPF) in 1958. Then it was known as the Immigration department headed by the Chief Federal Immigration Officer (Kpmg, 2015). During this period, the department had a narrow law as well as a narrow scope profile and a simple strategy in achieving its objectives. The department was basically responsible for visa and business sections (Edet, 2014). Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) department became independent in August 1st 1963, becoming a department under the supervision and control of the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs (FMIA).
While the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs (FMIA) which is now officially known to be the Ministry of Interior has the responsibility of maintaining Nigeria’s internal security and Nigeria’s integrity to trigger good governance. This ministry (Ministry of interior) also manages some agencies which are seen as tools for their effectiveness. Among these agencies we have the following; Civil Defense Corps (CDC), Federal Fire Service (FFS), Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) and the Nigerian Prison Service (NPS). For this study the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is practically the subject matter relating to Nigeria’s socio-economic development and security relating to International Migration activities in the state (Ministry of Interior, 2013).
Still examining the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) the head of this department was known as the Director of Immigration (DI) but now known as the Comptroller General (CG) of the Nigerian Immigration Service (KPMG, 2015). In that same year (1963), an immigration act was made but literature reveals that the act was not strictly enforced or properly implemented as it was supposed to take care of the law relating to admission, residence or employment of aliens. This agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) was officially established by the Act of parliament (Edet, 2014).The first officials were from the Nigerian Police Force (Chhangani, 1983). Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is legally responsible for the regulation of movement of persons coming in and going out of the nation state (entering and exit). This involves two (2) categories of people; the emigrants and the immigrants.
Among various achievements of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is the introduction and implementation of ICT for effective operations, the introduction of Combined Expatriate Residence Permit and Alien Card (CERPAC) in 2002 as it made the institution improve from paper work type Residence Permit which admitted some errors (Williams, 2015). There was also an introduction of the online payment, this paved way for e-revenue collections and also made the agency effective in her duties and responsibilities. This was also later emulated by the federal government (NIS, 2017 and Olawale, 2010). There was also an introduction of Forensic laboratory to examine travel documents of holders. Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) officers in charge of this laboratory have been highly skilled as they have been exposed to a lot of trainings, locally and internationally on document fraud detection techniques (NIS, 2017).
In 2013 the agency formed a border patrol corps, in that same year an additional 30 control post and 27 patrol bases for backups were established which made the control post a total of 114 and the total of 372 patrol bases in Nigeria. The agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) has also embarked on various reforms to strengthen the e-passport system against possible manipulations from various criminals and also various reforms to avoid frauds of travel documents. The service also commissioned a data centre to address various e-payment platform challenges (Parradang, 2015).
In the year 2014, the sector reintroduced a new CERPAC (Combined Expatriate Residence Permit and Alien Card) which improved on the shortcomings of the former CERPAC. This new CERPAC (Combined Expatriate Residence Permit and Alien Card) came with an enhanced machine readable features that helps the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) to solve and detect a reasonable amount of security challenges as well as frauds (Williams, 2015).
There was also an introduction of the Readable Electronic Passport also known as Electronic Passenger Automated Registration System (E-PARS) to replace the old Machine Readable Passport (MRP) which was more of manual procedures (Akinsuyi, 2005, Williams, 2015 and NIS, 2017). This is also counted as an achievement as this made the Nigerian state recognized as the first nation state in Africa and among the first 40 (forty) countries to have adopted this system in the world. This has been helpful in tackling trans-border crimes and illegal/undocumented international migration, most especially identity theft, fraud among other illegal acts and intentions since the e-passport contains biometric details of the individuals (Williams, 2015).
The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) succeeded in establishing a passport office at Warri, Delta state. There was also an opening of more Residence permit production center. There was also a construction of Automatic rising Bollards at Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) Head quarters. The agency succeeded in installing security scanning equipment at the main entrance of the Alhaji Shehu Shagari complex Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) head quarters (Ministry of interior, 2017).
Also, according to the Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette (2017) the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) introduced a new immigration regulation that compliments the 2015 immigration act which was introduced to meet up the standard of the new International Migration activities in the globe. The act replaces the outdated 1963 immigration act. This new act lay emphasis on regulating border crimes especially terrorism activities. This immigration regulation was established to meet up with the demands and trends that come with the present day International Migration activities. The regulation also was drafted to empower the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS).
In addition to her achievement, the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has also taken some steps in the battling of border mismanagement by creating a border management information system (MIDAS) at the Ilela border with Niger, a border post at Seme and an establishment of bilateral commission with neighbouring West African States. However, more is expected from this agency (International Organization of Migration 2014: 6) as a migration agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) in a nation-state. The agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) and the Nigerian government are expected to work together for the socio economic development and security of the Nigerian state. This implies that Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has the responsibilities of communicating with the present administration on International Migration matters and how it can relate to the socio economic development and security of the Nigerian state. This study thinks aloud revealing that International Migration activities is monitored by the Nigerian Immigration Service as this agency can be a tool for socio economic development and security in the Nigerian state. (Idio et al, 2015). The study also tends to reveal that qualified immigrants in a nation-state’s work force can supply quality and productive results to the nation state (West, 2011). This is one importance of International Migration that can bring socio economic development in the Nigerian state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Literatures had shown that there is a connection between International Migration and socio economic development and for a nation-state to experience growth the presence of security is inevitable. In Nigeria, the major agency responsible for International Migration activities is the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS). Above other functions, the agency’s (Nigerian Immigration Service) duties comprises of all International Migration activities from the migrants identity down to the process of leaving the nation-state or coming into the nation-state. However, the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) have various challenges that may hinder these achievements (Socio economic development and Security) among them includes porous nature of the Nigerian borders, lack of the agency in various areas coupled with various challenges affecting the Nigerian state such as the influx of little or no skill and undocumented migrants from neighbouring countries in the region and also the emigration of sophisticated experts and skills out of the Nigerian state to their favourite destinations due to the felt “Push” factors. In accordance with these perceived activities and experiences how has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) communicated to the Nigerian federal government (FG)? How has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) communicated these reasons from these individuals (Nigerian migrants) back to the Nigerian federal government (FG) on why they are leaving and how the nation-state can avoid this high population of skilled migrants out of the Nigerian state? Has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) taken the responsibility of advising the Nigerian Federal Government on the issues of the Nigerian borders and infrastructures? How has the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) communicated the needs and suggestions of various skilled individuals on the need for an attractive “pull” factors as International Migration can also aid socio-economic development? Have the agency (NIS) also communicated to the Nigerian public on the need to avoid irregular International Migration for the state’s good image and for a plan towards socio-economic development of the state (IOM, 2009)?
Finally, have the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) enlightened the ruling government and the Nigerian public on the benefits of “qualified immigrants” into the nation state (Dustmann et al, 2007), as Nigeria requires highly skilled labour to sustain growth. Obviously, a reasonable amount of immigrants entering into the Nigerian state have low skill or no skill, these can decline the labour force and productivity of a nation-state. It has also been revealed that majority of the Fulani herdsmen and the Boko-haram terrorist groups are not Nigerians (Musa, 2011). This raises the question on how they got into the nation-state so easily and unnoticed by the Nigerian Immigration Service. This uncontrolled influx of migrants has resulted to serious challenges to the political, security, planning, crime control, environmental management and socio cultural and economic development in the nation state to mention a few (Ashiru, 2016).
All these and more makes up the statement of the problem that initiated the study of the above subject matter.
1.3 Research Questions
The research questions are as follows;
- What are the duties and roles of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)?
- How important is the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) responsibilities in the security aspect of the Nigerian state?
- How can the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) help in the socio-economic development of the Nigerian state?
- What are the challenges facing the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of this study are;
- To examine the role and relevance of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in the Nigerian state.
- To determine the importance of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) to the security of the nation state.
- To determine the duties of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in the socio economic development of Nigerian state.
- To identify the challenges facing the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS).
The study tests the following hypotheses stated in its null form;
- H0: There is no significant relationship between the roles and relevance perception of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS).
- H0: The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) responsibilities play no important role in security of the nation state?
- H0: The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) does not help in boosting the socio economic development of Nigeria.
- H0: There are no significant challenges facing the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is no doubt one of the special offices in a nation-state, as it deals with the gates of the Nigerian state in respect to the coming in and going out (emigration and immigration) of persons automatically dealing with the nation state’s security and her socio-economic development since literatures validates the fact that International Migration activities can bring socio-economic development to a state.
The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) among other agencies is chosen because the agency is one of the special and sensitive offices in a nation-state. The agency is also involved as it gives permissions to migrants in and out of the nation-state. Relating this study to international relations, the study explains the benefits of citizens relations in the globe (immigrants) and how the Nigerian Immigration Service plays a role in this interconnectedness and communication of these nationals (migrants) as it has the legal authority and responsibility to secure the nation state as well as initiate socio economic development within its own quota and as well protect the image of the Nigerian state through the thorough checking of immigrants and emigrants (migrants). Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) out of many other sectors is also held responsible for the security of the nation-state as they are the gate keepers of the Nigerian state.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study centers on the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) as an agency that have legal responsibilities to influence socio-economic development in the nation state and the migrants who engage in these activities.
1.8 Limitations to the Study
In the course of this study little hindrances were encountered, these were the inability to get books on Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) from the library especially at the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA) library, in Lagos State Nigeria. Due to the inability to get books, only one book was found in the library that relates to the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS), this book is titled “Illegal Aliens under Nigerian Law written by Chhangani, R.C. in the year 1983. Other materials gotten from the above Library (Nigerian Institute of International Affairs NIIA) were outdated information of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) which were in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s.There were only few recent newspapers that emphasized on the above mentioned agency (Nigerian Immigration Service). All the materials gotten from this library (Nigerian institute of International Affairs) apart from the one book were all newspapers.
Finally, the refusal of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) officials at Alagbon (the Old Secretariat block Lagos State) and the P.R.O at the headquarters (Federal Capital ,Abuja) to permit interviews due to the rules and instructions of not revealing information of the Service (Nigerian Immigration Service) limited this study as well.
However, the study had to make alternatives by requesting for questionnaire and the agency’s (Nigerian Immigration Service) magazines in the absence of the requested interviews also sourcing materials from journals, articles from websites of the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) other International Migration agencies such as International Migration Organization (IMO), newspapers, and some unpublished works turned out to be good alternatives.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This study consists of five (5) chapters. The First chapter (1) is made up of Introduction; Having the Background of the Study; Statement of the Problem, Research Questions, Objective of the Study, Hypotheses, Significance of the Study, Scope of the Study, Limitations to the Study and Organization of the Study. The second chapter (2) consists of Literature Reviews and Theoretical Framework. The Third chapter (3) laid emphasis on the roles of the Nigerian Immigration Service and Methods to the Study. While Chapter four (4) Focuses on Data Analysis and Presentation of Results. Finally Chapter five (5) is made up of Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion.
Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
This chapter emphasized on the Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion of the above Study.
The study of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has revealed the above agency to be a special office and a migration office under the Federal Ministry of Internal Affairs (now known as Ministry of interior). Briefly the responsibilities of these agency are; the handling and controlling of all International Migration activities which includes; the control of immigrants and emigrants (migrants) as the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) determines who is qualified to enter or leave the nation state, they have the sole responsibility of drafting and implementing International Migration policies and regulations, they also issue travel documents to applicants and finally they are in charge of various entry and exit gates of the nation state these entry and exit gates are the land borders, the sea ports and the airports. Having these responsibilities and many more duties, the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) can in her own quota contribute to the socio economic development of the Nigerian state.
This study is made up of five (5) chapters. These are as follows;
The First chapter (1) is made up of Introduction; Having the Background of the Study; Statement of the Problem, Research Questions, Objective of the Study, Hypotheses, Significance of the Study, Scope of the Study, Limitation to the Study and Organization of the Study. The second chapter (2) consists of Literature Reviews and Theoretical Framework. The Third chapter (3) laid emphasis on the Roles of the Nigerian Immigration Service and Research Methods. While Chapter four (4) Focuses on data analysis and presentation of results. Finally Chapter five (5) is made up of Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion.
The recommendation of the above study regarding the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) and her contribution to the socio economic development of the Nigerian state requires the collaboration of the Nigerian public such as; The Nigerian citizens, Nigerian migrants, the Nigerian government, the private institutes, the border communities and the institution in question which is the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS).
i. The Nigerian Citizens
Every Nigerian citizen has a part to play in the effective performance of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) as regard the socio-economic development of the Nigerian state. Nigerians should be security conscious and aware of foreign individuals living around them who might have some questionable characters. If there is any one witnessed, they should be reported to the right authorities. Nigerian citizens should also frown at hosting irregular migrants as it is against the nation state’s immigration laws. Every Nigerian citizen should also take the responsibility of educating families and friends (Most especially emigrants) on the importance of investing in Nigeria most importantly highly skilled individuals.
ii. The Nigerian Government
The Nigerian government has a big role to play in the success of Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS). These roles are as follows; providing infrastructures and releasing funds to enable the agency (Nigerian immigration service) carry out their legal assigned duties efficiently without been truncated by loss of resources as this above study reveals that the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) have various challenges affecting their performance.
The Nigerian government has the responsibility of making the Nigerian state very secured to live in by not tolerating any form of violence or political crisis and if there is any it should be properly and quickly handled by the appropriate authorities as security is one of the important “pull” factors of International Migration that sometimes influences a migrants decision on a particular territory.
The Nigerian government also has the duty of providing various social amenities such as good roads, electricity supply among other amenities. The Nigerian government also needs to make simple and considerate policies for investors who desire to come into the nation state to invest.
The Nigerian government should as well try as much as possible to create opportunities and platforms that will attract Nigerian emigrants back to the nation state, most especially the highly skilled individuals. This means that the Nigerian government should help in establishing various attractive pull factors that is too good to be true, as this among others might be able to persuade Nigerians abroad and other potential migrants who might want to be interested in investing in the nation state.
The Nigerian government should also try as much as possible to cut down the push factors which are more of a hindrance to the immigrants and a burden to the Nigerian citizens causing them to leave the nation state. Some of the push factors are; corruption, insecurity, kidnapping to mention a few.
The Nigerian government also has the responsibility of catering for the border communities bringing them closer and creating the feeling of self belonging by providing various social amenities for them in their various communities such amenities can be; infrastructures, clean water, schools, health centers and other privileges such as employing their youths in the various infrastructures put in place in the area to discourage the thoughts of the Nigerian government abandoning and neglecting them as the study reveals that these border community members collide with these irregular migrants for few amount of money.
The Nigerian government also has the responsibility to communicate with Nigerians in the Diasporas through various government agencies and delicates for the earned purpose of creating a bond that will make them feel part of the Nigerian community at home as well as initiating the idea of coming home to build the Nigerian state as well as invest in her. These Nigerian migrants can also be encouraged to bring the knowledge and skill back home to strengthen theNigerian labour force and also by appointing the best Nigerian experts into various Nigerian government offices to move the Nigerian state forward with their expertise.
As regard the porosity of the Nigerian borders, from the information gotten, the Nigerian government may not be able to fence the Nigerian state round due to either the finance or the large total mixture of water and landmass of the nation state, due to this reason the Nigerian government and the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) should put in place various structures in various suspected entry points into the nation state. This avenue can also create jobs for individuals who are yet unemployed.
The Nigerian government should also have a good communication with the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) in drafting out various strategies that will bring about quality socio economic development and security for the desired positive change Nigerian citizens seek.
The Nigerian government should be aware that the ultimate success of the nation state lies with them and they should be remembered that various “push” factors Nigeria as a nation state possess today is the faults of the mentioned Nigerian government (past and present respectively) due to the failed, inexperienced, unqualified and undisciplined leaders.
iii. Private Institutions
It was observed in the study that most Nigerian factory and industry owners and other likely private institutions prefer to employ irregular migrants from the West African neighbouring countries due to cheap wages to safe cost. The study revealed that labour is cheaper when individuals from the neighbouring poor countries are engaged.Jobs held by these set of individuals are factory workers, builders, cooks, teachers to mention a few. These private institutions should try as much as possible to go through the legal procedures of getting their necessary needed manpower as responsible Nigerian citizens to enable the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) carry out their work effectively.
iv. Border Communities
The border communities also have a special role in the socio-economic development and security of the Nigerian state; they can be of assistance to the security agencies most especially the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS). From the study it is revealed that the border communities host irregular migrants most especially irregular/ illegal immigrants in their houses in exchange for money. The Border communities should be aware and also be educated on the dangers of hosting irregular and undocumented immigrants in their houses or their communities in general.
v. The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)
The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) plays a huge role on the socio-economic development and security of the nation state around their respective duties and responsibilities. The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) should be able to communicate to the Nigerian government and the Nigerian public on various issues regarding International Migration activities in the nation state. Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) has the responsibility of educating the general public mostly through the various media platforms such as with television programmes and the social-media. Some of the suggested topics that should be discussed in these programmes are as follows; Benefits of skilled qualified immigrants into the Nigerian state, How International Migration can help in boosting the socio economic development of the Nigerian state, The dangers of irregular and undocumented migrants into the nation state and also irregular Nigerian migrants out of the nation-state to other countries as well as why Nigerian migrants must conduct themselves properly for the good image of the nation state, the disadvantages of brain drain through emigration of Nigerians and the advantages of brain gain and what it takes to get it established in Nigeria just like other nation states. All these and many more should be topic raised in form of discussions and in various platforms, most especially through the television.
Just as the study reveals various challenges of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS), the agency should try as much as possible to effectively and always make do with what is at hand as with little much can be done as well. But among the challenges of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) is leadership. As revealed in the study, leadership is very important than structure in any organization. The leaders of the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) consist of all heads of department as well as the Comptroller General to mention a few. When the leadership in an organization is weak there is bound to be visible challenges in their duties and in the characters of the employees, staffs or subordinates. In the same direction, every seed sown by the head of an organization spreads to his subordinates to the least staff. This implies that when a leader of an organization inculcates corruptible habits as other bad ethics whether in secret or in the open it will affect and spread these bad habits to the subordinates. This is what describes the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS). In other for the agency (Nigerian Immigration Service) to achieve her goal as regard the socio economic development and security of the Nigerian state as discussed in this study, an effective, diligent and disciplined leader is needed. But unfortunately nobody gives what they do not have. The leaders of the service (Nigerian immigration service) have the duties to build the strength of the staffs.
Policies are like a guide used in operating in a particular place, these implemented policies and regulations of International Migration are meant to be dedicatedly and judiciously carried out by this service (Nigerian Immigration Service). The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) should always improve on data collection of migrants as this will be one of the tools used by the agency and Nigerian Government in sourcing immigrants for socio economic development and security reasons. Still emphasizing on the competency of the leaders which is believed to be the starting point of every failure and success of any team or organization, the leaders of the Nigerian Immigration Service should be well examined for effective and maximum delivery. As a leader he/she should be active and should be able to put in place structures and other requirements that demands for a more successful sector. The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) should work with the federal government tirelessly on the issue of porosity of the Nigerian borders and how it can be effectively managed and other areas discussed that will need the intervention of the Nigerian government.
Migration is known as the movement of persons, this culture has always been part of the feature of humans from the very beginning as they migrate for various reasons such as their desire, for safety, for abundance and most important with the “push” and “pull” factors and so is it till this very day. International Migration is a global challenge its activities has been a source of concern in the international system as various nation-states try within their power to secure the nation state by shaping their foreign policies, setting various structures to make immigration presence in various recognized border post, as well as setting of immigration laws to mention a few. However, International Migration cannot be really stopped because man by nature tends to move to where he or she desires and feels comfortable. The 5th stage of globalization has made this very possible. International Migration can be very impactful in the receiving and sending states only if it can be effectively managed by the government sector known as the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) and the Nigerian federal government through various effective migration policies and dedicated duties. Nigeria as a nation state has a responsibility if truly she wants to enjoy fully the positive aspect of International Migration as the developed world presently enjoys.
In Nigeria, we are familiar with the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) who as an agency is responsible for all migration activities in the nation state. The Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) have the responsibility of bringing socio economic development as well as securing the Nigerian state in its own way as it is responsible for these International Migration activities.
This study contributes to the already given information on the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) as regards her duties on socio economic development and security in the Nigerian state (just like other respectable immigration offices in various nation-states) and as well acknowledging the migrants most especially those who are desperately willingly to emigrate, emphasizing on the fact that the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS) can be that “little angel” that might be able to initiate socio economic development and security at its strength and little effort.
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