Federalism And Crises Management (A Case Study Of Boko Haram)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Federalism And Crises Management (A Case Study Of Boko Haram)


The study investigates the effects of Boko Haram on Nigeria federalism and also how well Nigeria has been able to manage its crises. Boko Haram in Nigeria has been a regular feature in Nigeria, it’s existence can be traced to the mid 1990s. This phenomenon has attracted a great deal of comments across the world. Commission of inquiry had on many occasions been set up to look into the cause of Boko Haram menace and making recommendations without in fact looking into the underlying factors of these regular crises.

This study therefore, is an attempt to look into the underlying factors that provoke the uprising of Boko-Haram and its effects on federalism.

The study is based on the assumption that Boko Haram in Nigeria today is certainly a perennial and serious problem, capable of causing total political upheaval and instability; a problem that seem to defy solution because, the efforts of the government and especially the present democratic government of President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan to check this problem, it continues to re-occurs from time to time.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Since the beginning of Democracy to Nigeria in May 1991, the deteriorating internal security situation has been a source of growing concern to the Nigeria government, it’s harmless citizens and the international community in just a decade, criminal violence in form of kidnapping militancy, religious crises and armed robbery has assumed frightening dimensions. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of religious violence which threatens public order human security and Nigerian federalism.

Federalism is a formidable, mechanism for managing plural societies, however religious crises have tended to impact the effectiveness of the federalist logic in Nigeria with different plans by the government towards sustenance the nation, little or no result seems to be forthcoming because Nigeria is continuously weighed down by religious crisis/burdens.

Federalism is also a system of government where power is shared between the central government and the component units, it is used as a mechanism in ensuring unity in plural states, federalism is cursor a system of governments in which political authority is divided between a national or federal government and its political sub-division. In this system, national and state government each have defined powers denied both. Federalism is a covenant between constituents’ part of a country as to how, the arrangements of power and resources are to be distributed between the levels of government, it is a system that accommodates and manages diversity.

Nigeria federalism dates back to the colonial era of her existence. By 1951, it was thought of by the colonial masters that the Nigeria State should adopt the system of federalism in order to curb the issue of division in a country like Nigeria that is diverse in culture and ethnicity.

Despite federalism been the framework or mechanism in ensuring unity in diversity, there are still problems faced by the Nigeria federal stated (Badmus, 1987). These problems includes the activities of social cultural or ethnic groups such as Niger Delta militant group, the movement for the actualization of the sovereign state of Biafra (Massob) among others, which was a fallout of Nigeria federalism, second fallout is the ongoing Boko Haram menace which is threatening the unity of Nigeria.

Perhaps the greatest challenges to modern federalism in the 21st century is the effective response on all levels of government to a domestic attract or natural disaster, and also the ability of government to respond effectively towards crises in Nigeria and also ways to manage crises.

1.2 Statement of Problem

The desire of every federal state is to ensure unity across the nation, because it seeks to promote peace and unity in diversity which is a solution to seemingly differences and contestation among people. However while federalism benefits most western countries the reverse is the case for Nigeria considering the high level of political instability, ethnic crises and ethno-religious crises amongst others. The reason is not farfetched Nigeria is operating a federal system in an awkward manner and this has made frictions and clashes possible which are currently posing a threat to her political development. Nigeria state has over the years been faced by so many problems and has become a conflict ridden terrain which kills innocent citizens. The most recent of these problems is the Boko Haram which stands as a big threat to the co-operate existence of the Nigeria federal state.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of this research work are as follows:

  1. To critically evaluate the Nigeria federal state and its workability.
  2. To identify and highlight the factors responsible for the emergence of Boko Haram.
  3. To investigate a case story which illuminates the challenges of modern federalism.
  4. To examine the challenges posed by boko haram.
  5. To ascertained how the boko haram menace can be reduced.
  6. To examine the problem of federalism if its federal, state of local.

1.4 Scope of Study

This research work is aimed at the evaluated Nigeria federal state in relation to the dangerous activities of the boko haram Islamic group, and also how well the government can managed crises. Situations in Nigeria though Nigeria is faced by so many uprising such as the Niger Delta militancy, movement for the actualization of the sovereign state of Biafra (Massob),

1.5 Significant of the Study

The research work is important in the sense that it will help prefer solutions to the various problem encountered by the Nigeria federal states, especially in the face of challenges posed activities of the Boko-Haram.

The finding of the work will provide recommendations that will help to meliorate the challenges facing the Nigerian federalism in it will also be useful to the Nigeria police officer and other security agency.

Another significant of the study is that it will add to the stock of knowledge that already exist in the research as well as serve as a reference material for those who would want to carry out further research in the area.

1.6 Research Questions

  1. Is the activities of boko haram a threat to Nigeria federalism.
  2. What are the factors responsible for the emergence of Boko-Haram?
  3. Can Nigeria federalism stand the test of time? In the face of many challenges it is encountering?
  4. How has Nigeria been able to manage the crises been encountered?
  5. What solution can be proffered in checking the Boko-Haram menace?

1.7 De-Limitation of the Study

This talk about the various challenges that might be encountered by the researcher in the cause of project writing. Such problem may be the inability to get relevant resources materials that could be useful to the study low response from some respondents, inaccurate and on reliable information from respondents amongst others can be major limitations of the study.

Chapter Five

Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

This study is essentially concerned with the evaluation of crises management and the activities of the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria and its impact on the Nation’s Federal Structure.

Nigeria federalism, rather than promote unity in diversity, has been faced with a myriads of problems which include the nefarious activities of some socio-culture or ethnic groups such as the Niger-Delta militant groups, the movement or the Actualization of the sovereign state of Biafra (MASSOB), the Oodua People’s Congress (OPEC), the Egbeso Boys amongst others and most recently, the activities of the dreaded boko-haram religious sect, all of which were a fallout of Nigeria lopsided federalism.

At the moment, the activities of the boko haram religious sect still persist with no end in sight as these threatens the corporate existence of the Nigerian federal state whose original desire is to ensure unity across the length and breadth of the country.

With the attempt made so far in this paper to identity the crises that are laden in Nigeria we need to look at the qualities that our leader’s need to possess to be able to manage this crises and take us out of the tunnel of depression.

Our leaders must be focused and be able to identify these problems and see them as real problems that need very urgent attention. This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the Nigeria federal state and it’s workability, factors responsible for the emergence of the Boko Haram sects as well as ascertaining how the Boko-Haram menace and many other problems facing the Nigeria federal state can be ameliorated or possible eliminated.

To this end it did a literature review and content analysis of work on Boko-Haram and Nigeria federalism, also crises management.

In sum, the study is presented in five chapter viz: chapter one is predominantly introductory hence the study took a look at the definition of federalism, crises, that have threatened the corporate existence of Nigeria federalism.

Chapter two was pre-occupied with the theoretical framework and review of related literature in the study area.

Chapter three talks about crises and crises management.

Chapter four gives a detailed analysis of the Boko Haram Group.

5.2 Recommendations

In a bid to finding a lasting solution to the challenges bedeviling the Nigeria federal state, the federal government most take steps that can be seen as workable and potent enough to promote unity in diversity among various ethnic groups. The government should also try to find a lasting solution to the activities of the Boko-Haram sect by first of all knowing the immediate and remote causes of the emergence of the group, what they are actually fighting for and possible, the meeting of their demand and to do this, this study recommends the use of peaceful negotiation rather than the use of military force.

5.3 Conclusion

The Nigeria federal state is at the moment undergoing though times which if not properly handled could lead to the breakup of the Nigerian state has been predicted by some persons in the past. The nation’s federal existence is threatened by such problems as kidnappings, arms proliferation, armed robberies, drug and human trafficking and violence associated with ethnic, religious and political conflicts which has become very alarming in the recent past and has continued unabated.

The government of the day has taken certain measures to make the country a peaceful and more secure place for the people and development to thrive.

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