Corruption And The Development Crisis In Nigeria (Case Study Of Bayelsa In Yenagoa Local Government)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Corruption And The Development Crisis In Nigeria (Case Study Of Bayelsa In Yenagoa Local Government)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine corruption and the development crisis in Nigeria with focus in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State, ascertain the causes of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State, and investigate the effect of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of civil servants in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State is high. Furthermore, the findings of the study reveals that the causes of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State includes: greed of money, higher levels of market and political monopolization, low levels of democracy, weak civil participation and low political transparency, higher levels of bureaucracy and inefficient administrative structures, and low press freedom. Therefore, it is recommended that the executive should strengthen the existing agencies fighting corruption such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) in order to make them more functional and effective. These agencies should be more innovative by preventing officials from stealing public funds through the use of Information Technology (IT), rather than the last minute arrest and prosecution. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

One thing that has held Nigeria back since independence is corruption exemplified by the plundering of state resources. Sadly, the nation‟s laws have not recognized the cankerworm for what it is. Closely linked to the leadership issue, corruption in the form of state plundering is seems to explain why successive government regimes in Nigeria have failed to their positions as mandate to serve, sacrifice and make positive impacts on the citizens and the society. Instead, the norm has been to regard such positions as a means of amassing wealth and looting the public treasury. Nwaneri (2018, p.8) quoted Nobel Laureate, Prof. Wole Soyinka, as likening this menace in the country to cancer as well as used „hydra‟ and „octopus‟ as images to describe the level of graft in the country. According to him, “Nigeria have a cancerous situation, you fight one arm of corruption, another grows. A methodological name for corruption in Nigeria is hydropus” ( Nwaneri, 2018, P.8). Soyinka may not be far from the truth, as the country over the years has seen its wealth withered with little to show in living conditions of the masses.

The Global anti-corruption watchdog, Transparency International (TI), ranked Nigeria low in its 2017 Corruption Perception Index (CPI) released in February 2018. The ranking placed Nigeria in the 148th position out of 180.According to the CPI, Nigeria scored 28 out 100, which is lower than the average in the Sub-Saharan region. Nigeria‟s placement indicates that the country has not made progress in its fight against graft, particularly in the misappropriation and embezzlement of state funds, despite claims by the successive government regimes to the contrary. In the 2016 rankings, Nigeria scored 28. In 2015, it scored 26. In 2014, the country scored 27 and 25 in 2013. In 2012, the country‟s score was 27 out of 100.This means that Nigeria has consistently featured at the top level of most corrupt states during the past six years. The frightening dimension that corruption has taken in Nigeria of late, has prompted calls for drastic measures need to be taken to combat it, as the various anti-graft agencies – Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC, and Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences Commission, ICPC, are fast bringing up the rear the anti-graft war. In view of the above, corruption is a multifaceted phenomenon with multiple causes and effects” (Anduig & Fjeldstad, 2001). Corruption in Nigeria is a phenomenon which increases in quantity, intensity and in geometric formation (Akpan &Ezeugo, 2017).

The indigenous bourgeoisie in Nigeria, unlike their foreign counterpart has always depended on the state for its accumulation of capital. In order to maintain the access and control of state power, the political exposed elites used their control of the state to engage in primitive accumulation of capital through the corruptive plundering of the common wealth of the nation. Despite the abundance of natural mineral resources (solid and liquid), Nigeria is ranked among the poorest countries in the world (Atoyebi & Mobolaji, 2004). There is a noticeable increase in the deterioration of infrastructures and social services in Nigeria as a result of poor management of resources, poor governance and corruption.

Corruption by ministers, parliamentarians, state chief executives, directors and members of the politically exposed persons has severally been reported in Nigeria (Fawehinmi, 2001, Charles, et al 2005). Corruption undermines good government, fundamentally distorts public policy, leads to misallocation of resources, harms the organized private sector and hurts the poor (Nwaobi, 2006, Waziri, 2011). Corruption is the biggest killer disease in Nigeria. Apart from distorting the macroeconomic indices, corruption ensures that basics such as Medicare, water, schools, roads and other infrastructures are unavailable. It has led to a deplorable and depressing image of Nigeria among the comity of nations. Corruption has undermined sustainable development, distorts market fundamentals and erodes the dignity of man in Nigeria. It promotes inequality and social justice and undermine public expenditure management, good governance and poverty alleviation. In a study on corruption and income inequality in third world democracies, Chang (2007) demonstrates why democratization results in greater income inequality in third world democracies. According to him, when third-world countries democratize by opening up elections before they have secured a system of accountability, the resultant corruption wildly distorts the income distribution and leads to greater inequality. Similarly, Simpson (1990) argues that inequality rises with democracy up to some threshold and then starts to decline. Inequality coupled with and fueled by pervasive corruption can turn into an ever-lasting nightmare for both politically exposed persons and ordinary citizens in new democracies like Nigeria, unless some external shocks (such as institutional reforms) successfully break down this vicious circle. Countries with higher initial levels of inequality are “doomed” and are held captive by inequality because greater initial inequality leads to conflictual democratization, which in turn furthers inequality (Acemoglu & Robinson, 2012). In contemporary time, the primitive accumulation and inequality especially in Nigeria is manifested in the blatant looting of the public treasury by the politically exposed persons thereby endangering national development.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

All over the world, the perception of corruption especially in public places is very high. This is because, corruption undermines every aspect of national development among which are, political development, economic development, social development and so on. It should be emphasized here that it is not just only in governance that corruption is found; it is equally noticeable in every human society.

Specifically, the high rate of corrupt practices in the post independence period in Nigeria is noticeable in various governments (civil & military) occasioned by mismanagement and misappropriation of fund, lack of transparency and accountability, arbitrary award and inflation of contracts, embezzlement, bribery, diversion of fund and so on.

The effect of these corrupt practices over the years on Nigeria’s national development especially in the fourth republic cannot be overemphasized. As would be argued in this discourse, the high incidence of financial corruption in governance since the post colonial Nigeria in general and fourth republic in particular (1999 till date), is hinged on lack of good governance and inept leadership, lack of rule of law and so on. This is why the country has been variously rated by some international organizations as not only among the most corrupt nations of the world, and has also been perceived as one of the top most failing states in Africa as noticeable in the high rate of poverty, dearth of infrastructure, prevalence of criminality, insurgency, youth restiveness among others. In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to examine corruption and the development crisis in Nigeria with focus in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to examine corruption and the development crisis in Nigeria with focus in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine the prevalence of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State.
  2. Ascertain the causes of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State.
  3. Investigate the effect of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the prevalence of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State?
  2. What are the causes of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State?
  3. What are the effect of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Corruption has no contribution to the development crisis in Nigeria.
  • Ha: Corruption have contributed to the development crisis in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is an academic masterpiece principally concerned with the critical assessment of corruption and development crisis in Nigeria. The study will enlighten the public and concerned stakeholders on the level of corruption in Nigeria, the forms, causes and implications of corrupt practices in Nigeria. In addition, this study will proffer implementable solution to the menace of corruption in Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study boarders on corruption and the development crisis in Nigeria. Geographically, this study will be carried out in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from civil servants in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Corruption: This is as a form of unethical behavioural by someone occupying a position of trust with the motive of personal gratification.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on corruption and the development crisis in Nigeria with focus in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine corruption and the development crisis in Nigeria with focus in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State. The study specifically was aimed to determine the prevalence of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State, ascertain the causes of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State, and investigate the effect of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are civil servants in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State is high.
  2. The causes of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State includes: greed of money, higher levels of market and political monopolization, low levels of democracy, weak civil participation and low political transparency, higher levels of bureaucracy and inefficient administrative structures, and low press freedom.
  3. The effect of corruption in Yenagoa Local Government of Bayelsa State includes: slowdown in a country’s economic growth, undermines democracy, decreases investment, increases poverty, and increases income inequality.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The legal framework in tackling corruption must be strengthened. The current situation, where corrupt government officials exploit legal loopholes and technicalities to cover their corruption charges and thereby escape justice must be seriously redressed. The legislature should amend such legal loopholes in the constitution that corrupt officials often hide under to evade justice.
  2. The executive should strengthen the existing agencies fighting corruption such as the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC) in order to make them more functional and effective. These agencies should be more innovative by preventing officials from stealing public funds through the use of Information Technology (IT), rather than the last minute arrest and prosecution.
  3. Government should have the political will to tackle corruption headlong. There should be no sacred cows, government should have the political will to prosecute any official found wanting in the discharge of his/her official duties irrespective of their status. There should be judicial reforms aimed at improving the capacity of the judiciary to speed-up the dispensation of justice as far as corruption cases are concerned. If possible, special courts can be established to try corruption cases, so as to conclude them speedily. Last but not the least, there is the need for value reorientation among Nigerians, aimed at changing the attitude and psychology of the people towards corruption as well as making the social problem an unethical practice in the minds of Nigeria (Njoku, 2015).

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