An Assessment Of Political Advertising On Electorates In The 2023 Presidential Election In Ondo State (A Study Of Adaba)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

An Assessment Of Political Advertising On Electorates In The 2023 Presidential Election In Ondo State (A Study Of Adaba)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine political advertising on electorates in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State as a case study. The study was carried out to identify the media platforms commonly visited by Adaba, Ondo State electorates for political adverts, determine the extent to which Adaba, Ondo State electorates are exposed to political advertisements, and ascertain whether political advertising have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of electorates residents in Adaba, Ondo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the media platforms commonly visited by Adaba, Ondo State electorates for political adverts includes: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Television. Furthermore, the study revealed that political advertising have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State. Therefore, it is recommended that the electorate should not depend on political advertising as its only source of information about aspirants or contestants, rather they should explore other sources such as friends, family, party members and business associates who could offer important information for their voting decisions. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The nomination and election of candidates into various political offices are important in party politics and representative democracy. In every political party, such nominations are made at national and state conventions preceding the presidential, gubernatorial, and other local elections (Achor and Moguluwa, 2012). Prior to the 2023 general elections in Nigeria, political parties through keenly contested or ‘stage managed’ primaries produced candidates who vied for various political offices. Securing a party’s candidature is a hurdle that must be passed using intra-party connections, personal contacts, and aspirant’s credentials or achievements. After securing a party’s candidacy, the candidate and the political party have an uphill task to winning during general elections (Achor, 2011). Irrespective of the level of political campaign, the electorate (voters) is the target. They buy the political product if the product meets their needs; they are also the recipients of political messages that solicit their support or vote. The voters may vary in their expectations which could range from a desire for total change from ‘politics as usual’, vibrant and visionary political leadership, to detribalized leader with holistic electorate-focused programmes (Achor, Nwachukwu and Udensi, 2023). As targets in political campaign (i.e. electioneering and voter mobilization campaigns), the voters are influenced through various political marketing strategies and programmes. The array of political marketing strategies provides information which voters need to assess candidate’s capability in satisfying their needs. The contents of the campaign blue-print are the expressions of candidate’s objectives for seeking votes from the electorate (Owuamalam, 2022).

Prior to the 2023 presidential election , the three prominent gubernatorial candidates massively employed political marketing strategies. These were employed to woo voters or persuade them to vote candidate of their choice or political party. One prominent strategy adopted by the three presidential candidates was political advertising, which is a kind of advertising specifically directed to the electorate to persuade them to vote for or against a candidate. Political advertising was massively employed since there is no known cutting edge strategy that can win all the time, given the political terrain in Nigeria where competition is stiff.

It can be recalled that the political atmosphere prior to the presidential elections was tense as a result of the incumbent president defection to All Progressives Congress (APC), the then opposition party in Nigeria. The polity was unduly heated while the electorate was divided due to issues and negative propaganda strategies that were used by both the opposition and incumbent political party to sway public opinion to their favour. To be able to holistically influence voters, different forms of political advertising which anchored on different unique selling propositions (USPs) were used. The implication is that political messages must be anchored around a specific issue, which explains why a candidate should be preferred to others in an election (Owuamalam, 2022). Although scholars and practitioners alike agree that political advertising is important for every election campaign, there seems to be no agreement on the effects of political advertising on electoral outcomes or choice of candidate for election.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Since the 21st century, the mass media have played a significant role in communicating information on political activities to citizens in Nigeria about the government, electoral parties’ political candidate, manifestoes and other activities of concern to the people. Communication is necessary for every society to progress and in the political society; communication is equivalent to the passage of messages from political elites to electorates, where feedback is given through the electorate’s voting of their choice of candidate. Political advertising is an expedient avenue for political parties to connect with their large audience via various media platforms.

The past two decades witnessed increased use of political advertising in Nigeria as a tool for mobilizing electorate’s support for elections ( Achor and Moguluwa, 2012). Prior to and during 2023 presidential in Nigeria, political parties employed advertising to sell their parties’ manifestoes and candidates. Given the heated political atmosphere that pervaded presidential election prior to the elections, it was not quite clear whether the crafted political advertising messages significantly influenced the voting public. All political advertising must have a message capable of influencing attitude, behavior and opinion (Nwosu and Nkamnebe, 2006). However, it was also not clear whether voters’ choice of candidate during the gubernatorial election were informed by the unique selling propositions used in the political advertising campaigns. More so, it is not evidently clear whether the majority of voters who voted during 2023 presidential election in Nigeria made informed voting decisions or choices as a result of their exposure to political advertising messages. In political communication, the credibility of the source and medium used impact on the message believability. Voters too were faced with the dilemma of either accepting or rejecting the message based on the above fact. During the electioneering campaign, the presidential candidates used different media in delivering their message and some of the media used had a different confusing message which is not really clear if they had any impact on voter choice of candidate on the Election Day.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to focus on political advertising on electorates in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State as a case study. Thus, the following objectives;

  1. To identify the media platforms commonly visited by Adaba, Ondo State electorates for political adverts.
  2. To determine the extent to which Adaba, Ondo State electorates are exposed to political advertisements.
  3. Ascertain whether political advertising have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be anchored by the following question;

  1. Has media platforms are commonly visited by Adaba, Ondo State electorates for political adverts?
  2. To what extent are Adaba, Ondo State electorates exposed to political advertisements?
  3. Does political advertising have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State?

1.5 Research hypothesis

  • Ho: Political advertising does not have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State.
  • Ha: Political advertising have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant as it will bring to the fore an awareness on the imbued prowess of political advertising in inculcating a push in electorates to vote for a particular candidate. It will be relevant to the government as it will allow for them to take the necessary steps to campaign properly. It will also be significant to other researchers as it would serve as relevant material to be inputted in their research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study boarders on political advertising on electorates in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State as a case study. Hence, the study will only cover the Adaba, Ondo State electorates.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Political Advertising:

Political advertising includes any advertising displays, newspaper ads, billboards, signs, brochures, articles, tabloids, flyers, letters, radio or television presentations, digital or social media advertising, or other means of mass communication, used for the purpose of appealing, directly or indirectly, for votes

Electorate:

Constitutes all the people in a country or area who are entitled to vote in an election.

Candidate:

A person who applies for or is nominated for a position. In this study, candidate refers to an individual who has been nominated for an election.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on political advertising on electorates in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine political advertising on electorates in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to identify the media platforms commonly visited by Adaba, Ondo State electorates for political adverts, determine the extent to which Adaba, Ondo State electorates are exposed to political advertisements, and ascertain whether political advertising have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are electorates residents in Adaba, Ondo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The media platforms commonly visited by Adaba, Ondo State electorates for political adverts includes: Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Television.
  2. The extent Adaba, Ondo State electorates are exposed to political advertisements is high.
  3. Political advertising have a significant influence on electorates choice in the 2023 presidential election in Adaba, Ondo State.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The electorate should not depend on political advertising as its only source of information about aspirants or contestants, rather they should explore other sources such as friends, family, party members and business associates who could offer important information for their voting decisions.
  2. Politicians and political parties should make efforts to give out only credible messages since most of the electorate is influenced in their voting decisions when they perceive political advertising messages as believable.
  3. It also recommended that campaigns about the electoral process in democratic societies like Nigeria should be continuous. This will enable the voters to be acquainted with all the requirements and the processes of voter eligibility. The use of radio for political advertising should be encouraged as it is easily accessible, affordable.

Project Material Download

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to Any of the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account
Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account
PalmPay Main LogoAcc No: 8143831497
Samphina Academy
Digital Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 200 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: An Assessment Of Political Advertising On Electorates In The 2023 Presidential Election In Ondo State (A Study Of Adaba)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.