The Impact Of Mass Mobilization And Citizens Participation In Community Development (A Case Of Umuerim Community Of Owerri West, Imo State)
The purpose of this study was to determine the impacts of mass mobilization and citizens participation in community development with Umuerim Nekede in Owerri west loca government area of Imo State as a case study.
The population for study comprised of teachers, youths forum, community leaders. The sample for the study was 26 person which where drawn using sample random sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using tables of frequencies and percentages.
From the analysis made mass mobilization is basically meant to ensure even development in any community. There should be constant enlightment programs, in calculating patriotic attitude, considering the culture and tradition of the people, programmes and project should reflect the general interest and felt needs of the people seeking public opinion and sourcing for food.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Certification page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the study
- 1.4 Research Question
- 1.5 Statement of Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope of the study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Steps and strategies for the mobilization of a traditional Nigeria community
- 2.3 Factors for successful mobilization in modern community.
- 2.4 Agents of mass mobilization for community development
- 2.5 The role of a community developer in mobilization
- 2.6 Problem facing effective mass mobilization and citizens participation
- 2.7 The speight’s technique
- 2.8 Argument for and against citizens participation are summarized below
- 2.9 Summary of Related literature
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design
- 3.3 Sources / Method of data collection
- 3.4 Population and sample size
- 3.5 Sampling techniques
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
- 3.7 Method of Data analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of data analysis
- 4.3 Analysis of data
- 4.4 Test of Hypothesis
- 4.5 Interpretation of result(s)
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Summary of findings
- 5.3 Conclusion
- 5.4 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
Mass mobilization and citizens participation has been concerned as a vehicle used by community developers to achieve their development goals and objectives.
Mobilization is the movement or campaign to more the masses into the process of change. Aroh (2002:32) sees mass mobilization as a process of awakening the consciousness of the people as to the resources at their disposal and also motivating and energizing them to utilize the resources collectively for an overall improvement factor in any development process.
Obanure (1988:40) defined mass mobilization as “the pooling together, harvesting, activating and utilizing potential human and material resources for the purpose of development”. Simply put mass mobilization and citizens participation entails people’s movement into the development process.
The degree of people’s participation in the development process vary: first is the expectation of the “normal” participation of the people in development activities.
In this dimension, there is no compulsion or massive and urgent drive of the people by the people participation. Secondly, the other way is to expect the “massive” total community commitment of the people and wholesale utilization of available resources for solving community problem. This takes the form of campaign ad referred to as mobilization. However, mobilization and citizens participation is geared towards giving a face bite to our communities.
From the above definitions of mass mobilization, it becomes pertinent or imperative to state that mobilization is not done in a vacuum. Mobilization must be carried out in a particular geographical area with a stable population and such population should be able to carryout social and economic activities in other to sustain life.
The mobilization is being carried out in a community. It is in this view that Aroh (2002:5) defined community as “a section of a society and a process through which people act collectively and take initiative to improve their lot. A community could be a rural or urban area where people live.
From the above definition, it becomes evident that mobilization and participation programmes are designed both for rural and urban societies but in developing nations like Nigeria, emphasis is laid more in the rural areas where productive capacity is very low when compared to the urban areas.
It is worthy to note that mass mobilization an citizens participation is made for the people and to be achieved through people. It is in this regard that individuals, non-governmental organizations, NYSC government institutions, traditional leaders, age grade, local government etc play different roles as community developers or agents of mass mobilization in other to give communities a face lift.
As community developers claim and adopt mass mobilization as a veritable tool for community development yet the evidence on ground portrays a poor state of out communities despite all programmes, strategies, resources been put in place to sensitize the people. Therefore, there is need for this study to look into the impact of mass mobilization and citizens participation in an attempt to finding ways of addressing the lots of our communities.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
Mass mobilization is seen to be paramount in any development process. As a strategy for community development, mass mobilization has been struggling towards giving our communities the desired face lift.
It has been observed that a number of factors seen to be militating against the achievement of the goals of mass mobilization efforts. Lack of financial and material resources on the part of the mobilizing agents and the people hinders the development of programmes and project geared towards moving the masses into the process of change.
Eberinwa (2005:94) points out that community development cannot take place where the necessary resources remains inert.
Ignorance is another factor which negates mobilization effort, local citizens cannot directly improve their situation substantially in the physical aspect of development when they do not show concern in the development process. Most times, government ignore the will and aspirations of the people when formulating social, economic and political policies.
Corruption among mobilization agents and influence of the wealthy has also hindered the development of communities through mobilization. The powerful members of the community do lobby and implore programmes and projects of their interest to the detriment of the larger community. Also the number of programmes and projects completely executed do not justify the huge sum of money provided for those purposes
These and other factors constitutes problem in an attempt to activate the people towards change through the machinery of the mass mobilization and citizens participation.
1.3 Objective Of Study
The major objective of the study was to determine the outcome or consequences of mass mobilization and citizens participation in the development process of our communities. Specifically, the study was to:
- To assess the participation in the mobilization process.
- To determine how conscious the people or masses are politically, environmentally and socially.
- Discover the measures and strategies that will promote effective mobilization.
- To access the impact of the people’s culture and background towards mass mobilization and citizens participation.
- To determine what mobilization and probilization means.
1.4 Research Questions
- Does the masses recognize citizens participation as a reliable strategy for community development?
- Who are the participants in the mobilization process and their roles?
- How aware an knowledgeable are the people about their social, economic, political and environmental conditions.
- Which measure or measures will best promote effective mobilization for community development.
- Does the cultural and background of the people influences their perception, understanding and reaction towards mass mobilization.
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
Hypothesis is an idea or suggestion that is based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or academic investigation. It is formulated to enable researcher to draw conclusions. In order to carryout a good research work, the following hypothesis are formulated.
- H0: Mass mobilization and citizens participation has not played a significant role in the community development.
- H1: Mass mobilization and citizens participation has played a significant role in the community development.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
The findings of this study will contribute to the existing knowledge, will help enhance the teaching and learning of community development through the instrumentality of mass mobilization and citizens participation in our institutions of learning.
The study will help identify the problems surrounding the effective mobilization of our communities and also makes substantial impact that will help not only umuerim community but the entire Nigeria communities to address their under –developed nature thereby leading to aggregated national development.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
it is truism that there are many strategies and approaches for community development. This study is delimited to the impact of mass mobilization and citizens participation in community development.
It focuses on the mobilization agents and their efforts in Owerri North community, the problems militating against the relevant solutions for addressing these problems.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
There were some set backs which the researcher encountered in the course of this study.
This is the life wire of any thing one does in life. The researcher lacked adequate funds in acquiring some materials need for the study. Also, the researcher faced financial problem during preparation and administration of questionnaire.
As still a student of higher learning, the researcher had limited time to devote to both the research work and class studies at the same time.
Paucity of materials:
The researcher did not find it very easy to source for materials which aided the research. This is because many authors or scholars have not written much in mass mobilization and citizens participation as a strategy for community development.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
The terms used in this study, which have unique meaning that could be subject to different readers of this project report are defined as follows:
This can be defined as a widely participatory process, up directed social change in a society intended to bring about social and material advancement (including greater equality, freedom, and other valued qualities for the majority of the people through their gaining greater control over their environment). Okoye (2003:3)
Development is a multi-dimensional process involving changes in structure attitude, institution as well as the acceleration of economic ground reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty.
According to Bensman in Aroh (2002:2:5) he referred to community as a relatively small center with a stable population in which all economic and social service necessary for life as a place where or in which people live, it could be urban or rural. Aroh (1997).
It is the re-orientation and organization exercise which sills discipline, raises peoples awareness and thereby untold there creature, productive and innovature abilities to transform the available natural resources into goods and services.
This entails the involvement of the members of the community in the process of change. It is the decisions or policies which related to their own affairs
5.0 Summary, Recommendation And Conclusion
Mass mobilization and citizen’s participation has been conceived as a vehicle used by community developers to achieve their development goals and objectives. Therefore, this chapter discusses in summary and conclusively. The impact of mass mobilization and citizen’s participation in community development. It draws the conclusion of the course of study for easy comprehensive of the work.
An analytical approach to this work shows that mass mobilization and citizen’s participation impacts positively in the development of these communities.
5.2 Summary Of Findings
The findings of there study of Umuerim community Owerri west local government area of the Imo state, shows the following:
- There has not been a total commitment by the development process, and this has resulted to poor achievement of development goals.
- The culture / tradition of the people, paucity of resources, illiteracy, poor government concern and funding etc. have hindered the effective mobilization of the community members.
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were made:
- Mass mobilization and citizen’s participation is a strategy which can give communities the desired face life.
- Mass mobilization can only achieve a reasonable development goal or impact positively in our communities when the militating factors are identified and addressed.
- There should be a constant enlightenment, sensitization programmes which should be geared towards informing the people about their roles and responsibilities in community development.
- Community mobilization (external and internal) and developers should be geared towards identifying and solving the basic need of the community.
- All the participants in community development i.e. the mobilization and other member of the community should inculcate patriotic attitudes. Officials or persons entrusted with development funds should be reasonably accountable and also show all acts of corruption.
- Programmes and projects of the community should not reflect the interest of a particular group or persons in the community rather they should be of general interest to the community members.
- Community mobilizes should take into consideration the culture and tradition as well as the religion of the people in developing development programmes and projects. This is to ensure general acceptance and workability of the project and programmes.
- Community mobilizes should seek the opinion of the people during initiation of projects and programmes and policies. This is because people work harder to achieve project and programs which they perceive than own idea.
- Government should also extend development plan programmes and project to remote community so as to enable the people feel governments concern about their welfare.
- Community members and mobilizers as well as developers should sources for funds to finance community projects.
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