A Comparative Analysis Of The Role Of Public Relations And Advertising In Mass Mobilization (A Case Study Of National Orientation Agent N.O.A.)

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A Comparative Analysis Of The Role Of Public Relations And Advertising In Mass Mobilization (A Case Study Of National Orientation Agent N.O.A.)


Abstract


This study is on (A Comparative Analysis of the Role of Public Relations and Advertising in Mass Mobilization: A case study of National Orientation Agency. (NOA) The programme of the National Orientation Agency was inaugurated by the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, late General Sani Abacha, following the dissolution of the Mass Mobilization and Economic Recovery (MAMSER) in 1994. NOA was therefore tasked to resume the responsibilities of MAMSER in the establishment of a framework for the positive mobilization and education of Nigerians to enhance social and political order.

Since its inception, the Agency has recorded some successes and on the other hand has its short comings towards the spread of its development gospel. Based on the summation, a system of collaborative communication using Relations and Advertising is therefore, necessary to facilitate Pubic participation of these government programmes and actions. Decentralization of communication and information system has helped in achieving and maintaining a network of collaborative communication.

The work of this project how ever is set to ascertain the role of Public Relations and Advertising in Mass Mobilization, A case study of National Orientation Agency (NOA). The study found out that Public Relations and Advertising has a role to play in enhancing Mass Mobilization campaign programmes. Also, found was that Mass Mobilization campaign through Public Relations and Advertising could effectively motivated the attitudes an behaviours of many Nigerians.

The paper is divided into five chapters. Chapter one covers the general introduction and deals with historical background, significance of the study, statement of Objective, research questions, limitation of study, scope study, theoretical framework and operational definition of terms.

Chapter two is the review of related literatures, focusing mainly on introduction, Public Relations and Advertising as a strategy for Mass Mobilization, the Public Relations arid Advertising programme and the, summary of the literature review.

Chapter three is about the methodology used in collecting, presenting and analyzing the data. In chapter four, the data collected were presented, analyzed and discussed while chapter five is the summary, recommendation and conclusion of the work.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Historical background
  • 1.3 Significance of the study
  • 1.4 Statement of objectives
  • 1.5 Purpose of the study
  • 1.6 Research questions
  • 1.7 Limitation of study
  • 1.8 Scope of study
  • 1.9 Theoretical framework
  • 1.10 Operational definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Public Relations and Advertising as a strategy for Mass Mobilization
  • 2.3 Public Relations and Advertising programme
  • 2.4 Summary

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research methodology
  • 3.2 Study population
  • 3.3 Sample Size
  • 3.4 Sample method
  • 3.5 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.6 Instrument of Data collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Measures to ensure validity and Reliability

Chapter Four:

Data Analysis and Discussion

  • 4.1 Date Analysis
  • 4.2 Finding and Discussion

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Findings
  • 5.4 Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

Public Relations is a planned and organized communication process that links particular elements society together for particular purposes. A leading Public Relation text says: The term Public Relations is used in at least three senses: The relationships with those who constitute as organization’s publics or constituents, the ways and means used to achieve favourable relationships and quality of or status of the relationship.

Thus, the term is used to label both means and ends, to name a condition and to express the condition or actions related to that condition.

According to Kotler (2003:616), A public is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on a company’s ability to achieve it’s objectives. Public relations involve a variety of programmes designed to promote and/or protect company’s image or its individual products. Public Relations is however, a planned effort to influence public opinion through good character and responsible performance based upon mutually satisfactory two -— way communication.

Kotler (2003:621) also states that, Marketing managers and public relations specialists do not always talk the same language. One major difference is that marketing managers are much more bottom-line oriented, while public relations practitioners see their job as preparing and disseminating communications.

Advertising now compares with such long-standing, institutions in the magnitude of its social influence has vast power in shaping popular standards and it is really one of the very limited groups of institution which exercise social control. Looking at advertising as a form of communication Jefkins defines it as, “controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of mass communications media” Advertising seeks to influence individual interpretations and the shared meanings of such symbols so that people will make choices that are favourable to the advertiser’s purposes.

American Marketing Association sees Advertising as: any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas. Goods or services by an identified sponsor. It can also be said to be any paid form Communication intended to inform and/or influence one or more people.

Kotler (2003; 637) opines that “advertising is one of the most common tools companies use to direct persuasive communication to target buyers and publics”. He also stated that: “advertising include not only business firms but also chartable, non profit and government agencies that advertise to various public both public relations and advertising are activities which attempt to influence, establish, extend, substitute, stabilize or relate to various groups or public for particular purpose generally to promote a good public image. It was the realization of this pervading role of information that the federal government formed a movement called National Orientation agency (NOA).

‘National Orientation Agency (NOA) was an organization that was established by the president and commander- in-Chief of the Nigeria armed forces, late General Sani Abacha for the purpose of mass mobilization.

Mass mobilization is the process of ‘awakening the consciousness of a people as to the resources at their disposal and also motivating and energizing them to utilize their resources collectively for the over all improvement of their living conditions. Mobilization is re-orientation that organization exercise, which instills discipline, up grades and raises peoples awareness and thereby unfold their creative, productive and innovative abilities to transform the available natural resources into goods and service.

Thus national orientation agency (NOA) is one of the key programmes of the directorate for social mobilization and was established by the government in a bid to organize, educate, inform and enlighten the masses.

However, this study is an attempt to find out if the noble objectives as enshrined in the national Orientation Agency (NOA) could best be imbibed by all Nigerians through the organs of the public relations and advertising or to find out if the combined efforts of public relations and advertising would be sought for better results.


1.2 Historical Background

The problem of social and political integration is perhaps, one of the most intriguing challenges of a developing society like Nigeria. No Nation can achieve its goals of development without a conscious effort of Integrating its people and mobilizing them to understand, to appreciate and also to identify with ideals of development for a multi-ethnic and culturally diverse nation like Nigeria with very high level of illiteracy, the need for public enlightenment and social mobilization becomes imperative.

Thus the political Bureau Report (1993:8) states that, “the very low level of education and therefore, low consciousness of the people has made them vulnerable to he fraudulent manipulations of the politicians and other dominant groups in the society”. This is why the people must be kept constantly informed, energized and sensitized to acquire an understanding of the general political Process so that they can participate fully, freely and also actively in taking decisions on issues that affect their lives.

On realizing the signicant of a coherent through a clearly guided and executed programme of social mobilization and political education, the Political Bureau Report recommended the establishment of a body to be known as the “National directorate of Social Mobilization and Political education” so this is what led to the re-birth of the Directorate for Mass Mobilization and Economic Recovery (MAMSER). Thus, an era of a comprehensive, coherent and sustained programme of social mobilization and political education for Nigeria has begun.

In 1993 the Federal Republic of Nigerian under the regime of late General Sani Abacha decided to merge the Directorate with some other similar bodies so as to pool together and consolidate all the areas of public enlightenment of mass mobilization and value re-orientation. This was what gave birth to the National Orientation Agency (NOA) in August, 1993.

This National Orientation Agency (NOA) has three principal objectives. One of these objectives is to educate, inform, enlighten and sensitize the people on the policies, progranmes, projects and activities of government as well as mobilizing favorable public opinion and support for government. This is borne out of the fact that information is power and that unless the people are well informed on national issues, they are not likely to willingly contribute their quota to national development.

Thus, while National Orientation Agency (NOA) strives to keep the masses constantly informed and aware of government activities, it is also through its comprehensive feedback mechanism, that it informs the government about the people’s opinion and reactions to its programmes.

The second principal objective of the National Orientation Agency (NOA) is value re-orientation. Nigerians must appreciate that they have no other country apart from this and so must be loyal and patriotic citizens. They must embrace our core national work ethics and eschew social injustice and corruption among other vices in the society. The third major objective of the Agency is the mobilization of the citizenry. According to the Political bureau report (1993:19), “to mobilize a people is to increase their level of awareness of certain set objectives with a view to achieving those objectives”.

In fact mobilization is a process of pooling together and harnessing the creative energies of the people for national development. In pursuance of its objectives the National Orientation Agency (NOA) has planned and implemented a series of programmes drawing largely on pubic relations and advertising through the electronic media, print and oral media means of communication.

However, National Orientation Agency (NOA) has an elaborate set of objectives and functions which are clearly spelt out in Decree No 100 of 1993.

Objectives Of National Orientation Agency (Noa)

  1. To mobilize favourable opinions for such programmes and policies.
  2. To encourage informal education through public enlightenment activates and publications
  3. To ensure that government programmes policies are better understood by the general public
  4. To awaken the consciousness of Nigerians to their civic responsibilities and to the promotion of national unity; citizen’s commitment to human rights and to build a free, just and progressive society.
  5. To establish feedback channel to government on all aspect of Nigerian national life.
  6. To develop among Nigerians of all ages and sex, social and cultural values and awareness, this will inculcate the spirit of patriotism, nationalism, self reliance and self discipline.
  7. To establish appropriate national framework for education, orientation and indoctrination of Nigerians towards developing socially desirable attitudes, values and culture, which project individual’s national pride and positive national image for Nigerian.
  8. To restore and sustain discipline in our national life.
  9. To encourage the people to take part actively and freely in discussions and decisions on matters affecting their general welfare.
  10. To instill in the populace a sense of absolute loyalty to fatherland.
  11. To promote new sets of attitudes and culture for the attainment of the goals and objectives of a united Nigerian state.
  12. To ensure and uphold leadership by example. And
  13. To foster respect for constituted authority.

Functions Of National Orientation Agency (NOA)

  1. Mobilization of favourable public opinion and support for government policies. Programmes and activities.
  2. Establishment of social institution and framework for deliberate exposure of Nigerians to democratic norms and values for a virile peaceful, united, progressive and disciplined society.
  3. Enlightenment of the general public on government policies, programmes and activities.
  4. Propagation and promotion of the spirit of dignity in labour, honesty and commitment to qualitative production, promotion and consumption of home produced commodities and services.
  5. Sensitization, induction and equipment of all Nigerians to fight against all forms of internal and external domination of resources by a few individual or group.
  6. Collection, collation, analysis and provision of feedback from the public to the government on its policies, programmes and activities.
  7. Propagation of the need to avoid all vices in public life including corruption, dishonesty, electoral and census malpractices, ethnic, parochial and religious bigotry.
  8. Arousing the consciousness of all categories of Nigerians to their rights and privileges, Responsibilities and obligation as citizens of Nigeria
  9. Mobilization of Nigerians for positive patriotic participation and identification with national affairs and issues.
  10. Re – orientating the populace about power, its use and proper role of government in serving the collective interest of Nigerians.

1.3 Significance Of The Study

The role of public relations and advertising cannot be over emphasized. One of the most fundamental roles of public relations and advertising is that of information dissemination.

That is, they disseminate Information, deliver message, and make people to be aware of what is going on in the society. Everyday of our lives, we witness the incredible power of both the public relations and advertising, in that, it informs and establishes a framework for the positive mass mobilization of all Nigerians towards a new social, political and economic order.

However with the result of this study, we will arrive at a definite result on how the people could accept public relations and advertising messages as they perform their roles, especially that of information dissemination which they tends to do.

This study will also contribute to the existing knowledge, the nature of Public Relations and Advertising contents.
On the completion of this study also, it will help the government to device means and strategies for the grassroots mobilization by using Public Relations arid Advertising as tools.

To envolve a basis for policy decisions for the redistribution of information in creating awareness of various innovative programmes and to give programme co-ordinators a basis for policy decisions.


1.4 Statement Of Objectives

This research work is aimed at evaluating the efficiency of public relations and advertising in mass mobilization.
The study is being carried out so as to find out how the masses react or perceive public relations and advertising messages when they see or hear it. We want to know if they will react positively or negatively to public relations and advertising messages.

However, we also want to find out if the public relations and advertising messages really persuade or make people to act in certain ways they do, that is, by conforming to those public relations and advertising messages could make people change their view about issues (positively or negatively).

This study will also help to know how the masses perceive public relations and advertising messages of National Orientation Agency (NOA) whether they perceive it as something real and worthwhile or perceive it as fictitious and misleading. The study also finds out which means of communication these messages could reach the people. This work will help us in the realization of these goals.


1.5 Purpose Of The Study

The essence of this research work is to find out the following:

  1. The role of public relations and advertising in mass mobilization and inducement of social change.
  2. The factors constraining the activities of the National orientation Agency (NOA) in the pursuit of its mass
    Mobilization programmes
  3. To make recommendation based on the findings of the study.
  4. To ascertain whether the National Orientation Agency (NOA) programmes can use public relations and advertising messages to create a framework for the mass mobilization of people.

1.6 Research Questions

Below is research questions/hypothesis of the research work.

  1. Are people aware of the existence of public relations and advertising in any Government organization?
  2. Do the public know about the National Orientation Agency (NOA) and are they involved in mass mobilization campaign programmes of NOA?
  3. Through what channel or medium do people listen to campaigns on mass mobilization and do they accept such information as reliable?
  4. Do public relations and advertising have any role to play in enhancing mass mobilization campaign?
  5. Can mass mobilization campaign through public relations and advertising effectively influence and motivate the attitudes and or behaviour of many Nigerians?

1.7 Limitation Of Study

This research work is limited only to the educated elites, since it would be very difficult to get the information from the illiterates.

Due to limited time and resources, the study is limited also to a section of Owerri Communities.
This study may be affected by socio-political differences of the masses but can still be a form of enlightenment.


1.8 Scope Of Study

This research work is concentrated only on evaluation of the role of public relations and advertising as a means of propagating mass mobilization programmes of the National Orientation Agency (NOA).


1.9 Theoretical Framework

This study is meant to deal with existing theories relating to the role of public relations and advertising. These theories are not actually practiced but are meant to be practiced.
The theories are as stated below:

In the social responsibility theory, the scholars of this school of thought agreed that the way to run a democracy is to expose the people to all kinds of information and all kinds of opinion and then give them the opportunity to accept it or not. This availability of information would make the citizens aware of the things around them, make them contribute to their society and also give them sense of belonging.

This theory however, is related to the topic of study in the sense that, it is through mass mobilization and orientation that members of the public can be exposed to information and opinion. Hence without the process of mass mobilization, the spread of information and opinion cannot be possible, thus mobilization is necessary.
Mobilization in a democratic civility which the masses in making a good choice of leaders to be voted into public offices it is then left for the Masses to accept the information or otherwise.

The social responsibility concept as it affects the government emphasizes the need for organizations or government to be sensitive to the needs an interests of members if the society or community in which they exist and operate by way of eliciting and keeping their goodwill and support (Nwosu 1996:202).

The libertarian theory urges the media to provide a free market of ideas, it advocates that the media through its varying programmes of action like Public Relations and Advertising be made free and left alone to relay whatever information they want to. This theory stipulates that for effective Public Relations and Advertising messages on mobilization, the media should be free to pass on whatever information they want to pass without fear or favour. This is the only way mass mobilization can be effectively carried out.

The cultural norms theory of the media contends that the media can establish the importance of certain issues in the society, simply by giving them enough listenership. They attempt to influence the masses to change in some ways. This theory stipulates clearly that it is the basic duty of the media to mobilize the masses and also influence social changes. It is the duty of the media to always, keep the masses informed since it has some kind of positive influence on the masses, it should be used as a channel for mass mobilization.

The National Orientation agency (NOA) could however through varying programmes of the media like Public Relations and Advertising, be able to influence social changes in the masses that would yield positive result in national development.


1.10 Operational Definition Of Terms

Comparative:

The act of examining and judging to what extent things are similar.

Analysis:

Statement of the result from examining and studying of an issue or event.

Role:

The part or duty in undertaking of an action.

Public Relations:

A deliberate, planned or sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding and relationship between an organization and its numerous publics.

Advertising:

It is a paid for communication intended to inform and/or influence one or more people thereby creating a favourable image for an organizat ion.

Mass:

The public or people that make up the society, state or nation.

Mobilization:

is a process of pooling together an harnessing the creative energies of the people for national development.

Media:

This is a channel through which advertisement and information are transmitted to their intended audience.


Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendation, Findings and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

The main purpose of this research work was aimed at ascertaining the role of public relations and advertising in the propagation of the mass mobilization crusade. Te research was also set out to appraise the scope of National Orientation Agency (NOA) operations with a view to ascertaining its effectiveness in the carriage of mass mobilization campaign.

It was however, discovered that majority of the people who knew about public relations and advertising were also aware of its existence in the Government organizations.

They agreed in like manner that public relations and advertising of mass mobilization campaign programmes and can effectively motivate the attitudes and behaviours of many Nigerians. The research also revealed that the present activities of the National Orientation Agency (NOA) in the carriage of mass mobilization campaign messages have not done much in influencing the behaviours of the people. Most people feel that mass mobilization campaign programme of National Orientation Agency (NOA) is not very effective and has not endeared itself to the mind of the citizens. Having established the fact that people rated the general performance of National Orientation Agency (NOA) fair as well as the fact that its programmes could still be accepted as reliable. It is therefore, rated as being effective in motivating the attitudes and behaviours of the public through the activities of public relation and advertising in mass mobilization.


5.2 Recommendations

Mass mobilization as already stated, is a deliberate and sustained campaign to change and already established social order, norms or practices which brings about a new attitude or re-orientation of odds in the society. It is a means of motivating the real Nigerians to respond by contributing to nation building, to awaken their consciousness and sense of belonging to formalize and channel the vast potentials present in these areas and to change the society by changing the people.

The problems is that over sixty percent (60%) of the population of the country are illiterates who feel alienated by the campaign rather than imbibe the ideas (that is absorb the information) the implication of the above therefore, is that the message of these campaigns should be fashioned to suit the characteristics of the target audience. That is to say that the message the of campaigns should be organized in such a way that it would suit the audience, and enable them to understand what the message is all about.

National Orientation Agency (NOA) planner’s needs to understudy the possibility of appealing to different tribes and ethnic groups involved in the programme. The campaign should be carried to the grassroots where interpreters should be used so that the people can understand what the programme is all about.

Public relations and advertising strategies of mass mobilization campaign programmes should be employed in getting the people sensitized to particular messages of the government or organization. Public relations and advertising are both about communication and every of its programmes must be planned and must have a means of evaluating the impact of mass mobilization campaign programmes.

Now in the light of the above study, the researcher hereby recommends the operational use of Public Relations and Advertising in the propagation of mass mobilization campaign messages to the public of effective attitude change, and behaviour modification.

It is imperative that the National Orientation Agency (NOA) understands the need for public relation and advertising with which to mobilize the masses into action and accepting government policies and programme for the overall interest of both the government and the people.

It is logical to reason that, if the masses are adequately mobilized in the new democratic administration, some of the ugly incidents witnessed within the first few months of the new administration would have been averted and also minimized. These include the Shagamu religious (cult) crisis, the OPC rebellions in Lagos, the Odi affair, the Niger-Delta issues, the Sharia constitutional problem and the Kaduna massacre. These problems could impede (delay) the growth of democracy and national development if not properly averted through mass mobilization campaign programmes.


5.3 Findings

  1. Through this work I was able to know that public relation and advertising has been in existence for years.
  2. I have also discovered that the national orientation agency are deeply involved in mass mobilization campaign.
  3. I also found out that almost everybody tune to their television for listening to campaign more than newspaper.
  4. 4) It has also been approved that mass mobilization has been creating lot of impact to the society.
  5. Through this work I can se that the majority of the people indicated that the influence of mass mobilization campaign messages exist although not too much.

5.4 Conclusion

In this project, an attempt has been made to analyze the role of public relations and advertising in mass mobilization using National Orientation Agency (NOA) as the case study.

A lot of literature was reviewed on this issue. Mass mobilization is aimed at attitude change a behaviour modification.

It was however, realized that an effective mass mobilization campaign is a good public relations strategy for mass mobilization.

It should be concluded that, the members in mass mobilization campaign programmes of the Government should endeavour to do so. This is because campaign is also part of the communication process or a continuing operation aimed at passing useful information which is designed to convert people from a state of ignorance to that of awareness regarding that which is to be shared with people. This implies spreading information in such a way that people would come to hold or understand information or belief about issues of the government.


A Comparative Analysis Of The Role Of Public Relations And Advertising In Mass Mobilization (A Case Study Of National Orientation Agent N.O.A.)


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