The Socio-Political Factors Affecting Productivity In Nigeria’s Public Service (A Case Of Owerri Municipal Council Owerri, Imo State)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

The Socio-Political Factors Affecting Productivity In Nigeria’s Public Service (A Case Of Owerri Municipal Council Owerri, Imo State)


The public service exists for the smooth running of the state and country in term of helping in translating government proposal and policies into action. The thrust of public service in sometimes not achievable which amounts to poor productivity and service delivery that heads to under development of the state.

How efficient and effective government is depend on a numbers and extents of the environmental factors in which public administrative system operates. In view of the above, this work was divided into five (5) chapters in order to examine the challenging socio- political factor be delivery productivity and service delivery in Owerri municipal council public service of which after investigation, distribution and collation of question, the researcher observed that political instability, organizational conflict, sexual harassment, nepotism, ethnicity, federal character principle, corruption, God-fatherism instead of merit system and administrative efficiency, motivation, conducive environment and ethical standard are the socio political factor that affect and militate against sustainable and improved productivity.

Therefore, this work is to the view that when the above socio-political factors are properly addressed there will be improvement and increase in productivity and service delivery in the public service of Owerri council.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Statement of hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of study
  • 1.9 Definition of term

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Review of the concept of public service in Owerri municipal council
  • 2.3 An analysis of state productivity in Owerri municipal council
  • 2.4 The role of motivation in improving performance in Owerri municipal council
  • 2.5 An overview of problem in the public service
  • 2.6 Socio- political factor affecting productivity and performance in the public service and as it relate to Owerri municipal council
  • Reference

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3 Sources/ method of data collection
  • 3.4 Population and sample size
  • 3.5 Sample techniques
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Test of hypothesis
  • 4.5 Interpretation of result

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 introduction
  • 5.2 summary of finding
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • Reference
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

The public service is an organization of government that execute the polices and decision at government. Public service also presuppose service in the organization of government .truly speaking the bulk of decisions and action taken by the government are influenced and implemented by public service.

The public service exists for the smooth running of the state in terms of helping in translating government proposals and objectives into action. Although in theory, it is the prerogative of the legislature (elected political office holder) to make and formulate policies and the public servant(Bureaucrats)are responsible for the successful and effective implementation of these policies and programmes. even though, the mandate the dries have a case in the favour of this assertion.

The public servant who are made up of competently technically and professionally trained men and woman in the nest field of government make and formulate these policies which when presented to their political which when presented to their police boss are merely structure and rubber stumped. Ogunna (1999) its main goal however, and the developing countries is how to see to the formulate and execution of people oriented policies and programmes of government that will enhance the general economic welfare of citizen.

However within the emergence of modern state and democracies the public service has evolved as the bed- rock of the executive arm of the government that ensure the implementation of the policies of the legislature while ensuring the continuity of government which is tailored toward the actualization of government objectives which is sine-qua-non to nation development.

Ajekomo and Aroh (2003) put differently, productivity is a crucial factor in economic and social development of a nation or an organization. Productivity is goal of every organization, any organization that cannot operate to a degree of significant productivity is an important entity ogunna (1999) a productive worker or employee is a productive technical and skill manpower will be an economically and socially buoyant and viable society organization and nation spend million years to improve staff or individual who will bring about productivity improvement to their service be it private or public organization Akanwa and Ohiri (2003) efficiency and effectiveness are inter related concept associated with organization endeavour while efficiency simple describe input/out put relation, effectiveness refers to the degree to which an organization can is able to achieve high output with minimum input (ikelegbe 1974) in public agencies and parastatals. Efficiency is often time regard of competence by which desired result are achieved it requires the goal should be achieved with minimum waste of resource in government bureaucracy.

The emphasis is on attainment of goods; service and promotion of public welfare rather than profit maximization (hale 1997). It might interest you to know that public agency can be measured based on the level of the attainment or realization at policy programme and organizational goals and objectives. Generally productivity in the public service can be effective depending on whether stated intention planned and projected output (productivity) and objective are realized or not.

Above all, it is note worthy to state that there are number of bed exiling institution, structural, motivational, social economic factors affecting productivity in the public service at all levels of government both federal state and local level and also in government agencies parastatals and ministries

Consequently this research work is designed to emphasize on only the social political factor affecting the municipal council Imo state and proffer possible solution to the affecting social political factors so as to ensure effective, efficient and improved productivity in the public service

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

In the sphere of public service certain socio-political factors have been identify as factors responsible for low productivity in public service. Therefore, it is indeed important to state emphatically the factor responsible for poor productivity in the service. Among the factor identified as being responsible for the poor productivity in public service are

  1. Political instability
  2. Corruption
  3. Negative attitude to work
  4. Ethnicity and federal character principle
  5. God fatherism
  6. Sexual harassment
  7. Favourism
  8. Religions beliefs and crisis
  9. Nepotism

In view of the various identified problem responsible for poor performance and low productivity of public servant in Nigeria, each successive government have tried general reforms measure to improve efficiency and providing min public agencies but these effort have always yield little result. This research is therefore aimed at examine the various socio-political problem facing owerri municipal council traces their cause and suggest possible solution that when put to test will prove on their present state.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

Based on the above the study is designed to achieve the following

  1. To determined whether motivation will induce worker into higher productivity in owerri municipal council
  2. To ascertain if stable government will guarantee and promote efficiency and effectiveness of worker productivity in owerri municipal council.
  3. To see if conducive and enabling environment will enhance service delivery and increase worker ability to work in the public service
  4. To see whether employment base on merit will increase productivity in owerri municipal council
  5. To analyzed in detail some at the soc-political factor militating against productivity in owerri municipal council

1.4 Research Question

This are question that will help investigate this research work in relation to the approved topic include the following

  1. What are the factors responsible for low productivity in public service in owerri municipal?
  2. How have these factor affect productivity in public service in owerri municipal council?
  3. What is the measure to overcome this problem that is affecting productivity in public service in owerri municipal council?

1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis

Hypothesis is a mere hunch or an assumption in which the research problem is base on derived. In this research work the hypothesis will base on

Hi: Motivation induces and stimulates employee in public service toward higher productivity in owerri municipal council.

Ho: Motivation does not induce and stimulate employee in public service toward higher productivity in owerri municipal council.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The finding of this research work are expected to contribute the following

  1. Provide basic information to help increase productivity in public service at owerri municipal council
  2. Provide suggestion in various ways to table the stated problem affecting productivity in the owerri municipal council

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the study is to know socio-political factor affecting productivity in the public service so as to proffer possible solution to poor performance and low government occasioned by those factors. The work covers owerri municipal council and the research ensures that the work is in depth and adequate coverage of the aforementioned local government and for effectiveness the work is limited to the public service.

Information was based on direct and indirect source from the civil service commission senior staff management committee of owerri municipal council, Nigeria union at local government employee (NULGE) owerri west chapter department of personnel and administration and some staffers of owerri municipal council.

1.8 Limitation Of The Study

A study like this is bounded to encounter one problem or the other, other which the research has to grapple with from time to time which may affect the finding and consequently its generation conversely the generalization of this work should not be a matter of doubt to the information user. The effort of the researcher was limited by Time Constraint.

Inadequate find, security of information by some staff of the local government council and Non- chalet attitude of some public service in the local government. Also the limit in which the research were was carried out, was not enough for the research to explore all avenue that would have added more light to this researcher work.

1.9 Definition Of Terms

Good research ethics demand that term should be defined in right sense where they are used in remove any ambequnes meaning in pursuant of his belief the following term are defined as they used in the study.

Public Services:

This refers to all personnel all public institution financed and maintain by taxpayer and the emolument of personnel are regularly authorized by the legislature acting in concert with executive.


This is defined as the measure of how well resources are brought together or services delivered in organisation and utility for accomplishing a set of result.

Social-Political Factors:

This is a combination of those societal and political variables that affect or shape the performance or productivity of staff in the organisation.


This is defined as a member of workers in an organisation.


This is a strong feeling that something is true even though you do not have any evidence to prove it.

Effectiveness And Efficiency:

Effectiveness refers in the degree in which an organisation can or is able to achieve high output with minimum input, while efficiency is the extent in which the resources of an organisation is judiciously utilized and managed to maximize cost effectiveness.


Beach [1975] defined motivation as willingness in expand energy in order to achieve a goal or reward. Kaitner [1980] assert that motivation is a process that arouses channel, purpose and direction.


The rules and regulation that things are suppose to be done. The process by which things is suppose to be done, the way of doing things in an organisation.


Workers’ who are responsible for the successful and effective implementation of policies and programmes of government.

Fringe Benefit:

These are other entitlement extra benefit paid by the basic salary and in addition to basic salary

Ecology Of Public Administration Okpo (2005):

opined that the ecology of public administration refers to the totality of natural, historical socio-cultural and political factors which as it were influenced the growth of public administration system


System according to okenwa and ugbo(2001) is an assembly of set of related element njoku (2008) posit that a system is simple term element working together for a common purpose.

Local Government :

According to nwoji (2005) local government is define in the Nigeria context as that ungues third-tier in a federal system of government saddled with responsibility of peddling development activities in the rural area with the aim of making the impact of government (civilian or military ) benefit of the local area.


A ministry refer to an office in the public service which is under the control of a permanent secretary and headed by a ministry and whose official are civil servant that has a particular area of responsibities e.g. ministry of finance ministry of education ministry of justice etc

Exteal –Ministerial Department:

These according to Ayioda panel (1997) refers to any office in public service which is under the control of a head of the department which official are civil servant. Such offices are usually established in the constitution they include such office as a auditor, general federal judicial service commission federal civil service commission etc.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

The objectives of this chapter is to summarize every work done so far in this topic and also to give a conclusion of the work done in other chapter of this project work, it also give recommendation where necessary and give reference of those authors who have contribution in one way on the other.

5.2 Summary Of Finding

Productivity is said to be a critical factor in economic and social development. A productivity individual or staff is a progressive individual so any society that has such mass of productive manpower will be an economically progressive society. As the business of government known public servant that see for any day running and execution of government policies and programmes, such an important task require that public service must be efficient in term of resource allocation and effective by way of attainment of stated gaols objectives and out comes to ensure improved productivity and development.

Meanwhile, the improved productivity and development cannot be achieved as there are some impeding socio political factor affecting productivity in the public service especially that of owerri municipal council which is the focus at this research work.

Furthermore, based on the observation from the personal interview condected, questionnaire distributed filled and returned the following were made;

That socio- political factor such as political instability and organization conflict in a bone to productivity and performance in public service of owerri municipal council

That conducive and enabling environment enhances service delivery and increase workers productivity in owerri municipal council.

It was further observed that employment based on merit system can increase productivity and performance in owerri municipal council

It also found out that employment based on ethnicity and federal character principle increase productivity and performance in Nigeria public service of owerri municipal council

It was also observed that God-fatherism very often affects productivity in owerri municipal council

That religious tolerance and crises free environment promote effectiveness and efficiency in owerri municipal council.

That favourism exists in owerri municipal council to an extent.

It was also found that sexual demand do not influence recruitment of skilled and manpower in owerri municipal council

It further observed that termination of employee appointment as a displinary measure is the best way of improving productivity in owerri municipal council.

Finally succinctly put, it was observed that motivation induce and stimulate worker to high productivity.

5.3 Conclusion

From the forgoing, this work was conducted in order to find out how to improve the productivity of staff in owerri municipal, so that the socio-political factors affecting them will reduce to barest minimum. Meanwhile, an going through the work, one must deduce that performance and productivity of staff in public service will prove and such improvement of the staffer will enhance the organization effectiveness and efficiency in the management of government business (public service)not only to owerri municipal council but also to al levels of government and government Agencies in Nigeria.

This can be achieved if the socio- political factor affecting productivity and performance in owerri municipal council such as political instability, organizational conflict, corruption, nepotism, tolerance, ethnicity against merit system, federal character principle quote system and patriotism in implementing government policies and programmes, God – fatherism and others are tacked and wipe out completely. Above all, to tackle and eradicate those above mentioned socio- political problem, there is need to consider the above mentioned recommendation and put them in place of achieve the general objectives of the public service which is efficient and effective service delivery to the public.

5.4 Recommendation

In order to increase productivity in the public service and to reduce the political problem or factor affecting staff in Owerri municipal council, the following measure should be adopted based on what the researcher found during this study:

  1. Appointment, promotion and remuneration in the public service should be based on merit system and not on family ties and the workers should be exposed to the organizational norms and values for them to be more productive.
  2. Political stability should be encouraged and promoted.
  3. Democratic governance should be encourage so as to allow public servants contributed their quota in decision and policy making of the government in order to increase productivity.
  4. The application of federal character principle should strictly base on merit and not on representativeness and quota system so as to increase productivity in public service.
  5. God Fatherism should be eradicated to increase productivity, ensure efficiency and effectiveness in the public service of owerri municipal council, staffs of Owerri municipal council should be patriotic in the government policies and programmes.
  6. Working materials should be provided and workers should be periodically evaluated on their performance in owerri municipal council.
  7. Proper disciplinary measure should be instituted and strictly monitored so as so to discipline the erring public officer without minding whose ox is god in Owerri municipal council.
  8. Finally, there is need for periodic orientation of staff and the staffs should tolerate each other and working standard and they should maintain oneness without minding the ethnic tribal and religious sentiments.

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