The Impact Of Information Technology On Business Administration And Management (A Case Study Of NITEL, Enugu)
The main purpose of this research work is to determine the impact of information technology on NITEL, Enugu. In order to achieve the purpose or objective very successfully, the researcher has taken into consideration: the meaning or concept of information technology, the characteristics of a good information system, information needed at various levels of management, etc.
Having observed the above, the researcher equally delised into the problems associated with information technology. Consequently, the conclusions reached were that certain factors such as staff redundancy, fraud, high maintenance or repair cost are some of the problems associated with information technology at NITEL.
The researcher made some useful recommendation would aid the effective management and applied information technology.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of content
- 1.1 Background of the study
- 1.2 Statement of the study
- 1.3 Objective/purpose of the study
- 1.4 Research questions
- 1.5 Research hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the study
- 1.7 Scope/definition of the study
- 1.8 Limitations of the study
- 1.9 Definition of terms
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 The concept of information technology and business administration and management
- 2.2 Characteristics of good information
- 2.3 Positive impacts of information technology on business
- 2.4 Negative impacts of information technology on business administration and management
- 2.5 Information needed at various levels of management at NITEL
- 2.6 Various products of information technology used in business administration and management at NITEL
- 2.7 Consideration made by NITEL in choosing information technology equipment
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Research design/method
- 3.3 Sources of data
- 3.4 Method of data collection
- 3.5 Population of study and sample size Determination
- 3.6 Sampling techniques/procedures
- 3.7 Validity and reliability of measuring Instruments
- 3.8 Methods of data (statistical analysis)
4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Group criterion: Respondents characteristics and classification
- 4.3 Data analysis according to question asked
- 4.4 Data analysis according to test of hypothesis
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary of findings
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Suggestion for further research
- Appendix (A)
- Appendix (B)
1.1 Background Of The Study
According to Akuwudike H.C & Ugwu O.I (2002:144), information is to business organization what blood circulating system is to human body. This is consequent upon the fact that decisions are based on information for effective decision making and effective execution of these decisions, there must be constant information flow. Hence, information is a very valuable commodity in organization as it helps to reduce uncertainty.
Effiong H. ETUKUDO (2002:180-181) said that information technology originated with mathematicians and engineers and draws heavily on concepts from these fields but with advances in brain research (experts ssyetm), it has now been used in linquistics and psychological studies and research.
The first writing in the world was invented by Egyptian priests around four thousand B.C, at first, the writing was a series of whole picture, which were drawn to tell stories. The priests wrote with a red pen and made ink by mitting soot and gum with water.
Another writer, Gidoen Imoh (1996:151) explains that the old talking drums, gongs etc were also used to send out information. In emergency situations, a section of the forest could be set or fire to warn people of impending or sudden enemy attack. All these various means of receiving, storing and sending information in the ancient time have been replaced by the vast array of machines in the modern world, this is called information technology.
According to Gideon Imoh (1996:153), the invention of the printing machine by a German called John Guttenberg, the calculating machine invented by Charles Babbage in 1855, the typewriter invented in 1867 by the sholes brothers of America, the invention of the telephone in 1976 by a scot Alexandra Graham Bell, the invention of radio in 1895 by marches marcini, the television in 1922 by Johnlogis Baird, the invention of the protographinc machine in 1826 by Joseph Nicce have presented a turn around changes in organization cultures and the ways of doing things into new ways.
Information technology has enabled business organizations to benefit from its array of products especially in the provision of services like E-mail, Internet etc through the aquisiition of E-mail addresses and websites.
From the earliest time to the modern time, precisely, the twenty-first century, information technology has spanned three distinct stages:
- Primary stage: Use of human labor
- Secondary stage: Use of electrical machines
- Tertiary stage: Use of electronics machines.
The modern age is aptly called the machine age. This is true in the light of the number less communication gadgets and information equipments that have flooded the market. But the greatest of this revolution is the computer, which has now revolutionized the modern business world.
1.2 Statement Of The Study
Information technology has given birth to many complex machines some of which are beyond the operational scope of an average business man. Only few businessmen can afford the high cost of training required to operate these machines.
Moreover, the costs of acquiring the machines are very exorbitant. The exchange rate of the naira is too down to earth when compared with other major currencies of the world like the American dollars, British pound set the high cost of machines is almost defeating the goal of information technology.
Another problem associated with information technology is maintenance and servicing of these machines. All these machines are manufactured in highly technologically advanced countries such as France, Japan etc. the user nations such as Nigeria lack the expertise and technical know-how to maintain and service the machines. When these machines break-down, the business can no longer use them and the operations of that business are greatly impaired.
Another great problem is that the information technology is an ever-changing sea. The rate at which the manufacturers and producers turn out these machines overwhelms stakeholders in the business world. As new discoveries are made, new machines are manufactured with their attendant different operational procedures. This keeps stakeholders on their toes as they are un-sure about what is to replace the present machines.
1.3 Objective/Purpose Of The Study
The main objective of this study is to identify the impact of information technology on business administration and management. In addition, the study will also try:
- To find out the true meaning of business in the modern world.
- Identify what information technology is all about
- Find out the information needed at various levels of management
- Find out the consideration made in choosing information technology equipments is in business organization.
- To find out the various information machines used in business administration and management.
- To make recommendation on ways and means to making information technology more efficient and effective.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the true meaning of business in the modern world?
- What is information technology all about?
- What are the information needed at the various levels of management at NITEL?
- What are the considerations made in choosing information technology equipment in business organization?
- What are the various information technology equipment used by NITEL in Nigeria.
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis has been advanced for the purpose of this study:
Ho: Information technology does not have any direct impact on business administration and management.
Hi: Information technology have direct impact on business administration and management.
H0: the machines of information technology used in business administration and management do not require effective handling.
Hi: The machines of information technology used in business administration and management require effective handling.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
This research work will be relevant and beneficial to the following people:
i. Stake holders:
It is hoped that through this study, the stakeholders in the information industry would be enlightened in terms of knowledge, qualification, experience and performance appraisal.
ii. Higher Institutions of learning:
It will highlight the need for higher institutions of learning and other agencies engaged in the training and of computer or information services to combine theory with practical. This can only be made possible if those schools and agencies procure the machines themselves.
iii. The society:
The larger society will benefit from this study in that it will educate them on the many sides to information technology and its effectiveness in business administration and management in the modern business world.
iv. The government
This study will be of significance to the government with respect to policies on the importation of information equipments. The high costs of these machines are consequent upon the high tariff imposed on the machines, cost of the machines became less and therefore affordable.
v. Further learning
This study no doubt will contribute to learning and then add to the frontiers of knowledge.
1.7 Scope / Delimitation Of The Study
This study is limited to the impact made by information technology on business administration and management. It covers both the positive and negative impact of information technology.
The Nigerian telecommunication Plc, Enugu branch, Opkara Avenue was used as case study, Operators of the various machines used in information services who are the major stakeholders in the information industry were also interviewed.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
A work of this nature is not easy to accomplish and as the result, the following limitations were encountered:
- Financial problem
- Time constraints
- Apathy on the part of the respondents
- Bereaucratic procedures involved in releasing data seriously affected the study
1.9 Definition Of Terms
Owing to the multiplicity of meanings of words in certain cases, the research needed to give certain words used in the study their contextual meanings.
This is data that have been processed into a form which is meaningful to the recipient and which is of a perceived value of either current or prospective decision and action by the recipient.
It is the scientific knowledge used in practical ways in industry for example in designing new machines.
There is raw, unanalyzed facts such as number, name or quantities
This is a group of related data of information.
This include the physical components of information handling.
The stuff that enables you to tell the computer what to do.
A series of clients, actions or operations that transfer the original material that is data into finished product called information.
An apparatus with several parts, suing mechanical power to perform a particular task.
It is the process of saving data and instruction permanently.
A machine that is capable of solving problems and manipulating date, it accepts data, processors the data by doing some mathematical desired logical operations and gives out the desired output.
An act of regaining or bringing back information saved in a computer system.
The process of getting activities completed efficiently with and through other people.
It is the totality of the organized efforts and procedures involved in providing people with goods and services fro a profit.
That part of management which is concerned with the installation and carrying out of the procedures by which the programme is laid down and communicated and the program of activities is regulated.
This is the transmission of information either through wireless telegraphy, microwave, radio link or other electronic methods from one source to a particular intended end.
5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Summary Of Findings
The research question sought to find out the impact of information technology on the administration and management of NITEL. Respondents generally agreed that information technology has made a tremendous impact on NITEL. This goes to show that in the world of business operations, information technology is indispensable to the activities of NITEL, being an organization that essentially dwells on information dissemination across the world. 60% of the total number of respondents agreed in this fact.
In question two, the objective was to find out whether all the levels of management ay NITEL require the same information. 18 respondents which represented 905 testified that the managers need different information for their operations.
The data gathered also showed that eighteen(18)5 respondents or ninety percent (90%) of the total number of respondents said that NITEL make some considerations in choosing information technology equipments, while only 2 respondents representing 10% of the respondents disagreed to this fact. The researcher leads credence to the voice of the majority.
On 2 respondents representing just 10% of the total number of the respondents noted that information technology has no negative effects on the administration and management of NITEL. While 18 respondents representing 90% noticed that it has some negative effect.
Finally the last research questions that is question five dwells on finding out the various information technology equipments of NITEL. 18% respondents representing 90% agreed that NITEL uses various information technology equipments for its operations while only 2 respondents representing 105 disagreed. The researcher lends credence to the voice of the majority.
From the data gathered from the study, the researcher makes the following conclusions:
- Information technology has made tremendous impact on the administration and management of business at the Nigerian telecommunication (NITEL) in the twenty first century.
- The type of information required at the notable three level of management –top, middle and operational are not the same. This is because their functions are different.
- Choosing information technology equipment or buy machines is not a easy task as one could think. There are different kinds of office machines and care should be taken to determine the one actually required in the office
- Information technology also have negative effects. this is evidenced by the fact that many authorities have submitted that information technology is a tool used by management to keep labor under the jack boots.
- NITEL uses various information technology equipment or products such as the duplicator, the photocopiers, the computers etc.
Consequent upon the conclusions arrived at based on the data gathered for the study, the researcher makes the following recommendation:
- Because of the need and indispensability of data to business in the modern world, serious efforts should be made by business organization to computerize their operations
- It is advisable that business firms and cooperate organization should pursue vigorously information equipment as this will help it in every sphere of its business operations or activities. Without these information machines or equipment, it is a near impossibility for any business to be effectively run.
- Managers should get information required at their respective levels of management because as their level differ so their duty.
- Proper or appropriate consideration should be made before the purchase of information technology equipments or machines since there are many machine. The most important consideration should be based on the kind of work the equipment will perform
5.4 Suggestion For Further Research
The researcher wishes to suggest that further research be carried out in the following areas:
- The problems of information technology in the new millennium.
- A survey of the role of information technology personnel in the modern business world.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What does information technology do in Business Administration?
Information receipt processing, storage, dissemination, etc. may be instant; otherwise valuable business opportunities might be lost. That is what Information Technology (IT) seeks to do in business administration and management. The development of information technology has come a long way.
What is the influence and role of Information Technology in business?
The influence and role of information technology have indirectly made the business flourish. efficiency. The more advanced technology also has a negative and positive impact on business, negative impacts. The influence and role of IT on the development of business and economic
What is the impact of Technology in business?
Almost all business sectors have leaned on technology to get into the competition in order to survive. Information systems have been the presumably to help reduce margin error and realize larger savings. In the mid profound impact on the way the world conducts economic and business practices.
What is the main purpose of the information technology study?
The main purpose of this study is to find out the impact of information technology on Business Administration and management. b) Find out what level of training is required for proper handling of products of information technology;
What does an information technology administrator do?
Information Technology Administration. Today’s business environment requires people who know how to manage information and work with complex computer systems and devices. Read on to learn more about degree requirements, employment prospects and earnings potential for information technology administrators.
What can you do with a business administration and Information Technology degree?
There are also job opportunities that require the blending of business administration and information technology skills. This can include, for example, sales and marketing professionals who specialize in information technologies.
What is the difference between Business Administration & Information Technology?
Your work in business administration may include developing and enforcing policies and programs, preparing documents, managing fiscal operations, record keeping and supervising staff. Information technology (IT) encompasses equipment, applications, protocols and methodologies used to gather, process and present various forms of data.
What is information technology and how does it work?
In one aspect, information technology is a commercial business product that is developed, sold and serviced, similar to any product. Information technology is also a business tool that can be maximized to help meet the specific needs and goals of an organization.
Why information systems are so important to businesses?
The importance of information systems in business starts with increased productivity and efficiency. It helps to ensure better record keeping, data safety, organization and regulatory compliance. Reaching a Global Market Information systems make it possible for companies to expand their offerings to people all over the world.
How technology will shape the future of business?
Many have asked and will continue to ask questions around what the future holds in a digital … technologies that are poised to shape the business environment especially in Africa. One of such is Blockchain technology.
How has technology impacted businesses?
The rise of the internet has enabled the casino industry to adapt to these changes through innovative apps and games with high-definition graphics. With a few clicks, users can easily switch between games and collect rewards. The internet also lowers the barriers to entry for certain games and activities.
Why did you choose information technology?
Why did I choose Information Technology: Because I like it. And it is a course that is keeps me updated to the latest technologies of today at the same time it is a very informative. About my college education: I learned things about computers. How it functions and what are the different uses of it.