The Role Of Information Technology In Public Management Process

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Abstract


This study examine ministry policies and practices with particular references to ministry of finance Sokoto. Taking a critical look at the problems and solution at the ministry, training of staff on ICT and non-training of staff. An extensive review of existing literature was made covering issues like problems of using computers in the ministry. The ministry of finance Sokoto. Prudential guidelines was examine and it was observe that the guidelines succeeded in sanitizing by providing a good result and compelling them to report their tree position furthermore, discriminating activities was observed to contribute to the growing number of ICT problem. Some recommendation put forward for effective raining programme in particular and services in general include the need to properly educate ministry staff on the need for judicious utilization of ICT facilities and the danger inherent in their mis-use, the need for ministry to put in place sufficient laws that would check the abuse of ICT facilities.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Information technology it is the technology which support activities involving the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information together with related methods, management and application. Therefore information, technology may be seen as the broadly based technology needed to support information systems. Broadly speaking organization strives to achieve certain goal for the benefit of their owner or clients. These goals may be expressed in term of objective such as increasing revenues, increasing profit, avoiding costs, or improving services. Such objective will need to be met within various financial constraints, and within the limitation of available resources.

In order to reach its objective an organization must be able to plan ahead and control and coordinate its activities for these, it depends on the provision and communication of information. The information is likely to be use must effectively if it is seen as a sources needed to be exploited to the best advantage by the whole organization -and not just by its individual departments. The idea that “the whole can be more than the sum of its part” lies behind this information system” view of organizations. Whether or not such view is taken, the requirement of providing and communicating information remains. These requirements are met, at least in part by the “Data processing system” within the organizations. Data processing (DP) is the technique of gathering, processing, storing and producing as well as manipulation of data to produce meaningful information.

IT management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them. Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, change management and organizing and controlling, along with other aspects that are unique to technology, like software design, network planning, tech support, etc. information technology, that assortment of technology that enables the conversion of data into information, has had an enormous impact in public organizations and its theoretical foundations. One of the primary impacts of information technology on public organization is the development of systems theory and its descendants including the study of complex systems, chaos, and complexity theory. Computer capability has enormously advanced the theoretical underpinnings of public organization.

The project title “Role of information technology in public management process with particular reference to Sokoto State Ministry of Finance”. Is compendium of the role of the ministry in managing the state funds and the development of the state. The research will discuss the role of information technology and its impacts to the people


1.1 Background of the Study

Information and communication technology is the process of managing the resources of a firm in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staff who are hired to maintain them. Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, change management, and organizing and controlling, along with other aspects that are unique to technology, like software design, network planning, tech support etc

One of the primary impacts of information technology on public organizations the development of systems theory and its descendants including the study of complex systems, chaos, and complexity theory. Computer capability has enormously advanced the theoretical underpinnings of public organization. Information technology also shapes organizations. For instance, one empirical study shows that the deployment of information associated with a decrease in the size of middle management Policies and regulations shape the land scope of information technology use in government.

From an organizational standpoint, the information age is in full swing and both public and private institutions are experiencing an increase in the use of a variety of information technologies (ITs). Realistically, it has become nearly impossible for an organization to operate without the use of one or more ITs. The implementation and subsequent use of ITs is a process of interrelated steps. Faltering or mis-stepping at any of the implementation stages may actually increase inefficiency, ineffectiveness, and promote any number of additional uncertainties. It is only through careful design, planning, acquisition, and implementation of ITs that we may benefit from more effective operations and solutions to problems. While ITs are not the instant cure-all that many view them to be they are certainly an asset and can provide a number of advantageous and effective solutions if properly adopted. The successful implementation of ITs in any organization depends on a multitude of important and interrelated factors.

The civil service is the bedrock of the executive arm of government. Its main tasks came to be the implementation and execution of the policies decided on by the legislature or those appointed by the legislature to carry on the executive work of government. The Sokoto State Ministry of Finance is the instrument/machinery use by the government for generating revenue for the government, preparation of annual general budget and for controlling and managing government revenue. The ministry is headed by the honorable commissioner as the chief executive and it is segregated into different departments where each department is headed by a director. The roles and responsibilities of each department is unique and different from the other.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem:

At one time or the other both federal and state as well as private organization had taken a giant strive action to adopt and maintain the use of information technology in the various set of organizations with a view to enhance effective running of Management/administrative process. To this end, some organization has provided with computers and their staff had under gone developmental training on computer studies. However, it discovers that some of these organizations have abandoned the uses of computer. The management process in the ministry of finance can be blames on many factors. Some which are as follows:

  1. Inadequate trained personnel: The ministry does not have sufficient trained personals to operate and handle computers. Most of the computer operators are not indigenes. They are employed on contract bases which affect their performance.
  2. Favoritism/Godfathermism: Some of the staff are employed because of their relatives in government not because they are qualified to be employed and because of that they can do and on do. They came to work at will and leave at will.
  3. Inadequate funds to acquire modern computers, the present computers used in the ministry are out dated computers. They were purchased more than ten years ago, the need has arise to purchase the modern once but the government did not do that due to inadequate funds.
  4. Problem of power supply: The instability of power supply by NEPA affected the operations and maintenance of the computers by the staff.
  5. Lack of political will on part of the government to strictly ensure computerization of management of finances. All management of finances are not fully computerized because he government officials are not interesting in doing that.

This research project attempts to examining the role of information technology in public management process and identify some various measures to such effect so that there should be efficient, effective, accountable, transparent and judicial control in the management of public funds by the ministry.


1.3 Objectives of the Study:

The main objective of this research is to assess importance of information technology in effective management process in organizations with specific reference to Ministry of Finance Sokoto. Also to bring out what information technology is all about and the roles and function of Ministry of Finance Sokoto. It is also among the objective of the research to highlight that factors militating against the uses of computer technology in a public organization.


1.4 Hypotheses:

The following hypotheses are to be tasted for the purpose of this study.

  1. H1 There is effective and efficient administrative output
    H0 There is no effective and efficient administrative output using information technology
  2. H1 There is more accountability, transparency and judicial control of public funds using computers
    H0 There shall be a lot of problems in accountability, transparency and judicial control of public funds using computers
  3. H1 The greater utilization of information technology by the organization, the more effective management process
    H0 Utilization of information technology by the organization brings more problems in the management process

1.5 Significance of the Research

It serve as a guide on how to improve the use of computer information in various public and private organization. It serve as a reference to students undergoing learning programmes in public management, accounting economics etc in various tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

The research will also be very useful to the staff of MOF Sokoto on how they shall perform their duties and responsibilities effectively. It will provide the full information about the ministry to the interesting persons. It is expected to prove useful to practicing administrators and those who are interested to know about information technology.


1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The new civil service reform introduced by the federal government is for implementation throughout Nigeria, but this research work is limited to only Sokoto State Ministry of Finance. The researcher encountered a number of limitations during the research work that include time. The research has limited time to carry out investigation and get needed information. Most of the needed information was unable to be obtained on time due to uncooperative attitude of the top management in charge of ministry files and records. The researcher is constraint from having direct access to the management level to derive information in term of interview which will be very useful to research work. But I am very grateful to the public relation officer of the ministry for giving me maximum cooperation in the conduct of this research work. Most public organizations especially Sokoto State Ministry of finance given absolute need to the law of secrecy because it deals with financial management of the state, which obstructs or hampers the researcher from obtaining necessary and accurate stability data.


1.7 Definition of Terms:

a) Information Technology (IT):

Is the study or use of electronic equipment, especially computer, for storing analyzing and sending out information. In another word, it supports the activities involving the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information, together with their related method, management and application

b. Administration:

The simplest and shortest definition of administration is the one which says that “when two men cooperate to roll a store that neither could move alone, the rudiments of administration have appeared. It is the administration and direction of persons in order to accomplish a specific ends.

3. Management:

It is the effective and efficient utilization of organizational resources to achieve predetermined goals

4. Public Management:

The term public management is commonly used to refer to both the activities concerned with the management of government business and the study of these activities.

5. E. Governance

Is the application of information and communication technologies (ICTS) to the process of government functioning to accomplish simply, accountable speedy, responsive and transparent governance


1.8 Chapter Scheme

This research project to the department of management studies is made up of five chapters.

In chapter one, the researcher gives a general introduction, to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, Hypothesis, scope and limitation and chapter scheme.

Chapter two consists of the literature review and theoretical framework of the research work. While chapter three also consist of research design, population and sample, sampling techniques, types of sources of data, data analysis techniques testing of hypothesis techniques.

Chapter four also consists of introduction, data collection, data analysis, hypothesis testing and summary of findings.

In chapter five ITs consist of summary conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

 

5.1 Introduction

This chapter is intended to give a chapter summary of the study, conclusion and recommendation


5.2 Summary

Chapter one gave introductory explanation about information and communication technology. The information includes the roles of information technology and the role played by the ministry in the management of public funds.

The researcher also stated what informed him to go into this study, the objective he intended to achieve and the scope and limitations of the study.

In chapter two, review of literature were highlighted with particular reference to evaluation of computers, concept of modern and information system, departments in ministry of finance and their roles and e-payment.

Chapter three dealt with sources and methods employed in both data collection and analysis. A brief description on the study area was given structure questions were administered to collect data, while the major analytical tools were tables and percentages. The sampling size and sampling techniques were stated.

Chapter four was concerned with data presentation, discussion and interpretation. The findings indicated short coming in both staff, individual and ministry, lack of adequate information rendered staff in capable or in qualified for information on computer.

In chapter five, the researcher summarized and conclude in the findings of the study. However, based on the findings, recommendation were made to help alleviate the problems highlighted.


5.3 Conclusion

In conclusion therefore, it is important for ministry to have a proper and indebt understanding of their internal and external environments so as to make appropriate alternation to such problems that may occur therein and also make appropriate provisions for future antiapartheid within and outside the ministry.

Any ministry that fails to do these would definitely have serious problems in coping with the ever information and may subsequently collapse.


5.4 Recommendation

From the available data on the historical background of ministry of finance and the findings from the analysis of the questionnaire administered, some certain weakness and strength are discovered and the following suggestion and recommendations shall be made.

  1. It is clear from the staff support of the ministry computerization programme that it has a high proportions of elite staff who are most likely to support any programme that considered to be rational in this regard in this regard must be the ministry initiatives should tailor a metch the needs of the staff that belong to these category in order to reduce resistance that may occur to its to west.
  2. Although the relationships between the staff can be considered to be good, but improvement can be made upon the present level of employee interrelationship. In this regard, sensitivity training can conducted in order to enhance mutual communication and understanding command employees.
  3. The ministry of embark or recruitment exercise to employ more staff especially their staff) to fill the vacant polities.
  4. ICT must be made to solve the existing problems and not just to berate the impression that at least a change has take place. Ministry interest must dominate all other personal interests in planning and implementing changes.
  5. The ministry should try as much as possible to encourage the participation of junior staff in its decision making process. This can be done by allowing the representative(s) of the junior staff committee(s) participate in deliberation so as to give room for adequate sampling of options.

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