This study was carried out to investigate forensic biochemistry. The aim of this review was to apply the knowledge and technology of science for the definition and enforcement of such laws. The forensic analysis is investigation the crime and examines material evidence. In forensic analysis various biochemical investigation techniques are used to examine the crimes like Hair analysis, Polygraphic test, serology test and finger print analysis. Several instruments are used in forensic analysis like IR, Chromatography, UV and Mass spectrophotometer. The characterization results showed that Forensic pharmacists engage in work relating to litigation, the regulatory process, or the criminal justice system.
1.1 Background of the Study
Any forensic science investigation involving biochemistry can be referred to as forensic biochemistry.
Forensic science is defined as the investigation of crime using scientific techniques and methods. These techniques are used to examine the materials that were present at a crime scene. Forensic scientists conduct a thorough analysis of all these materials to get clues about who may have committed the crime. The investigations surrounding murder, rape, and assault are largely dependent on the work of forensic science laboratories to point criminal investigators in the right direction.
Forensic investigations often involve serological and biochemical techniques. The biomedical techniques used to conduct forensic investigations constitute the field of forensic biochemistry, which has various applications. For instance, forensic biochemists may be asked to trace the origin of a particular substance, determine paternity or the relationships that specific people or animals share, or even track the spread of diseases.
Forensic biochemistry has proven to be invaluable in conducting forensic science investigations, particularly the DNA fingerprinting technique. However, it should be noted that forensic biochemistry must be used with caution, as its findings can have serious implications.
Forensic science is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or to a civil action. The word “forensic” comes from the Latin adjective “forensis” meaning of or before the forum. During the time of the Romans, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. In modern use, the term “forensics” in place of “forensic science” can be considered incorrect as the term “forensic” is effectively a synonym for “legal evidence” or “related to courts”. In a typical criminal investigation crime-scene investigators, sometimes known as scene-of-crime officers, will gather material evidence from the crime scene, victim and/or suspect. Forensic scientists will examine these materials to provide scientific evidence to assist in the investigation and court proceedings, and thus work closely with the police. Senior forensic scientists, who usually specialize in one or more of the key forensic disciplines, may be required to attend crime scenes or give evidence in court as impartial expert witnesses (Schafer, 2008).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The development of LCN DNA profiling provided forensic scientists with the capacity to analyse minute quantities of DNA. The technique is sensitive enough to analyse “just a few cells” (Gill, 2001: 229). This technique is therefore of particular benefit when investigating serious crimes for which there is limited evidence available (FSS, 2005a: no pagination). An example is provided by the forensic investigation which followed the 2001 murder of Peter Falconio in Australia. The evidence base was severely limited as no body was found. However, very small quantities of DNA were discovered inside the hand ties which had been used during the attack and on the gear stick of the victim’s van (FSS, 2005: no pagination). The use of LCN DNA profiling enabled this evidence to be linked to Murdoch, who was already suspected of the murder (FSS, 2005: no pagination).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate forensic biochemistry.
1.4 Significance of the Study
In this study, the researcher set out to investigate forensic biochemistry. Therefore, this study will be immense benefits to all the public and forensic experts.
The medical experts would also benefits from this study as the recommendations made in this study will be used in hiring forensic experts to investigate and conduct forensic science investigations particularly the DNA fingerprinting technique.
This study will also help to serve as literature (reference source) to students, individuals or corporate bodies into what to carry out on further research on the similar topic.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study critically investigates forensic biochemistry.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
There is no study undertaken by a researcher that is perfect. The imperfection of any research is always due to some factors negatively affecting a researcher in the course of carrying out research. Therefore, time constraint has shown no mercy to the research. The limited time has to be shared among many alternative uses, which includes reading, attending lectures and writing of this research, also distance and its attendant costs of travelling to obtain information which may enhance the writing of this study was a major limitation.
The operation of forensic science is nothing but the application of techniques and methods of basic science techniques and methods of basic science for various analyses of exhibits associated with crimes. Since it’s beginning the scientists of the Forensic Science Laboratory, Assam have been rendering invaluable service to the investigating agencies in various ways for the cause of justice.
The scientific examination of a forensic scientist adjoins a missing link or strengthens a weekly in the chain of investigation by furnishing an impartial and establishes evidence, thereby helping the court to come to a conclusion regarding the criminals and their punishments. The field of study or examination of forensic scientist is very wide, diversible and unpredictable.
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