Attitude, Acceptance And Perception Of Women Towards In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) – A Case Study Of Good Health Clinic Uyo

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Attitude, Acceptance And Perception Of Women Towards In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) – A Case Study Of Good Health Clinic Uyo


Abstract


This paper seeks to appraise the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards intro fertilization (IVF), a case study of Good Health Clinic, Uyo. A survey research design was adopted. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents for the study and a questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. The data were analyzed using a mean score rating method based on the 2.5 acceptance region format to answer the research questions, while to address the research hypothesis, the chi-square was used. The main objective of the study is to proffer an appraisal of the attitude and acceptance of the women towards Intro fertilization. The specific objectives include: (i) a positive attitude towards IVF; (ii) negative attitude towards ART; and (iv) positive attitude toward ART. In conclusion. Nigerian women, both in rural and urban areas, should be well educated about IVF, its advantages and disadvantages, so they are well enlightened. It is imperative that health care providers are aware of these perceptions so that they can practice ART in a fashion that is acceptable to the public.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Over the past half-century, societal changes have markedly altered typical childbearing patterns especially in developed nations. For a number of reasons, including the penalties associated with taking time off work and the enormous expense of raising a child, an increasing number of women have chosen to wait to have children. Each year, women are having their first child later than ever before. Whereas birth rates for U.S. women and other developed nations who are in their twenties have steadily declined each year, the rate has soared for those in their thirties and forties. As more and more women choose to delay motherhood, the frequency of women experiencing infertility issues has continued to rise. Today, a shocking one in six U.S. couples is affected by infertility. In 1982, 6.6 million women in the U.S. received infertility treatments and in 2002, this number increased to 7.3 million. Globally, it has been estimated that as many as 48.5 million couples worldwide are infertile .Since the first child conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF) was born in 1978 , there has been an explosion of advancements in the area of assisted reproductive technology (ART). ART is the collective term used to refer to the medical procedures involving the laboratory manipulation of eggs and sperm that increase the chances that a woman will achieve pregnancy. The most commonly performed ART procedure is IVF, but the term also includes preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and the use of donor eggs. Steptoe PC, Edwards RG. (1978). The recent advancements in ART have expanded the choices available to both physicians and patients, and have simultaneously created new ethical issues. Some of these issues concern the medical risks associated with infertility techniques, such as the high incidence of multiple pregnancies-which increases the risk of cesarean section, preterm labor and delivery, low birth weight and death Chandra A, Martinez GM, Mosher WD, Abma JC, Jones J. Fertility, (2005). Others involve redefining what constitutes a family and whether there are negative implications for children brought into a family by means of certain ART techniques. Recently, many of these issues have revolved around questions of patient access to infertility treatments. There is limited research on the public’s perceptions of these treatments, yet it is essential that health care providers are aware of these perceptions, so that they can practice ART in a fashion that is acceptable to the public. This paper seeks to appraise the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF). A case study of Good Health Clinic Uyo.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

IVF has always been controversial on religious grounds, and thus, religion is likely a factor that influences women’s attitudes towards this subject. Research suggests that highly religious individuals tend to hold more traditional views on marriage and family patterns. Those with strong religious beliefs also tend to hold more conservative views towards genetic testing and have ethical concerns with ART procedures. Surprisingly, however, the Catholic Church remains the only major world religion that explicitly forbids the use of IVF. Past research suggests that political affiliation influences attitudes towards ART and other reproductive health issues. In fact, a recent study found that political affiliation was one of the strongest predictors of approval of IVF use for nontraditional women (e.g. single women, homosexuals), with approval being higher amongst Democrats than Republicans. Shreffler et al. demonstrated that those with liberal social-political views are less likely than their conservative counterparts to have ethical concerns with ART. Similar findings have been documented in the realm of embryonic stem cell research, abortion reproductive genetic testing and posthumous reproduction. These findings parallel the core values that divide party lines: Republicans tend to place more value on the traditional family structure, whereas Democrats are often more liberal in regards to reproductive health issues .To our knowledge, no previous research has explored a possible link between attitudes and women’s length of awareness of infertility treatments. It is reasonable to expect a relationship to exist between these variables based on a concept known as the mere exposure effect, a phenomenon in which the mere repetition of an individual’s exposure to a stimulus enhances his/her attitude towards the stimulus. This idea that familiarity leads to liking has been demonstrated across a variety of stimulus domains- including attitudes towards mental illness organ transplantation , assisted living , newborn screening programs , biotech foods and epilepsy but heretofore not in the realm of infertility medicine. The problem confronting the study is to appraise the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF). A case study of Good Health Clinic Uyo.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The Main Objective of the study is to proffer an appraisal of the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF). A case study of Good Health Clinic Uyo;

The specific objectives include:

  1. To determine the attitudes of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF).
  2. To understand if in vitro fertilization is acceptable by women.
  3. To examine the perception of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF).

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the attitudes of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF)?
  2. Is in vitro fertilization (IVF) acceptable by women?
  3. What are the perception of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF)?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between perception and acceptability of women towards in vitro fertilization.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study proffers an appraisal of the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF).A case study of Good Health Clinic Uyo. It provides relevant data for the effective formulation and implementation of policies to enhance the realization of envisaged objective.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study proffers an appraisal of the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards in vitro fertilization (IVF). A case study of Good Health Clinic Uyo.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The study was confronted with logistics and geographical factors.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Art Defined

ART is the collective term used to refer to the medical procedures involving the laboratory manipulation of eggs and sperm that increase the chances that a woman will achieve pregnancy. The most commonly performed ART procedure is IVF, but the term also includes preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and the use of donor eggs.

Ambient Air Defined

Ambient air is atmospheric air in its natural state. It is what we breathe when the atmosphere is not contaminated by airborne pollutants. The composition of ambient air varies depending on the elevation above sea level as well as human factors such as the level of pollution.

Location Defined

A place of settlement, activity, or residence.

Education Defined

Education is viewed as the process of inviting truth and possibility. It is the wise, hopeful and respectful cultivation of learning undertaken in the belief that all should have the chance to share in life.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study focused on the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards Intro fertilization (IVF), a case study of Good Health Clinic, Uyo. The study was set to address three research objectives. The objectives which include:

  1. To determine the attitudes of women towards intro fertilization (IVF).
  2. To understand if Intro fertilization is acceptable by women.
  3. To examinethe perception of women towards intro fertilization (IVF).

Based on the above stated objectives and the study carried out, the following findings were made:

  1. That the attitude of women towards intro. Fertilization (IVF) is negative, women believe it is ungodly; women take it as their last option; they don’t broadcast it.
  2. That IVF is not acceptable by women.
  3. That the perception of women towards intro. Fertilization (IVF) include that there is negative perception of women; they believe it is ungodly; women take it as their last option and they don’t broadcast it.

5.2 Conclusion

The main purpose of this study is the assessment of the attitude, acceptance and perception of women towards Intro fertilization (IVF), a case study of Good Health Clinic, Uyo. The study was set to address three research objectives. Three research questions guided the study.

In this study, a survey research design was adopted, the population comprises all clients of Good Health Clinic, Uyo, a simple random sampling technique was used to select 100 respondents for the study and a questionnaire was the instrument for data collection. Relevant literatures were reviewed which guided the objectives and methodology of this study. As result of the field study and analysis of results, the following findings were made:

  1. That the attitude of women towards intro. Fertilization (IVF) is negative, women believe it is ungodly; women take
  2. As their last option; they don’t broadcast it.
  3. That IVF is not acceptable by women.
  4. That the perception of women towards intro. Fertilization (IVF) include that there is negative perception of women; they believe it is ungodly; women take it as their last option and they don’t broadcast it.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made:

  1. Efforts should be made to improve on the attitude of women towards the IVF.
  2. Nigerian women, both in rural and urban areas should be well educated about IVF; its advantages and disadvantages, so they are well enlightened.
  3. There should be proper orientation of the stakeholders on the details and technicalities of IVF.

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