Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus Among Aged People And Other Youth Of 27 Years And Above

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus Among Aged People And Other Youth Of 27 Years And Above


Abstract


World Health Organization has predicted a worldwide rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Nigeria is not exempted as evidenced by such factors as obesity and sedentary life style amongst others. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among youths and the elderly in Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Traba state. A cross-sectional descriptive survey using a multi-stage sampling approach was. Capillary fasting glucose was performed in all subjects, and when abnormal was followed by an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).

Definitions of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and DM (Diabetes Mellitus) were according to International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Guidelines. The prevalence of DM and IFG were 0.4 % and 14.5 % respectively. There was no significant differences between patients with different glycemic status in terms of ethnicity/nationality (p = 0.98) or gender (0.079). In the rural areas, 565 (81.1 %) subjects were normoglycaemic and 132 (18.9 %) subjects hyperglycaemic while there were 773 (88.3 %) normoglycaemic subjects and 102 (11.7 %) hyperglycaemic subjects respectively from the urban areas of residence and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000).

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was identical (0.4 %) in the two age groups (2–9 years and 10–19 years). Seventy-seven (4.9 %) children who participated in the study had at least one diabetic parent. The proportion of participants with a diabetic father (59, 3.8. %) was twice the proportion with a diabetic mother (30,1.9 %) and this was statistically significant (p = 0.002). Only 10 out of 228 patients with IFG reported for the follow up OGTT and no impaired glucose tolerance was identified in these patients. The prevalence rate of DM among children and adolescents was 0.4 %. Nationwide awareness campaigns and prevention programmes about diabetes in childhood should be instituted and existing ones strengthened. Adequate commitment from the relevant stakeholders especially the country’s ministry of health is also advocated to stem this looming epidemic.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objective Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.6 Delimitation (Scope) Of The Study
  • 1.7 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Concept Of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.3 Types Of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2.4 Causes Of Type Ii Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2.5 Sign And Symptoms Of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2.6 Treatment Of Diabetes Mellitus

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Methods
  • 3.2 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.4 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Prevalence can be simply define as a number of persons sick or becoming sick of a certain condition in a population used as a numerator at a define time. (John I. Chaveh, 2013).

The word diabetes mellitus came from Greek and it means a siphon”. Aretus the Cappadocian, a Greek Physician during the second century A.D., named the condition diabainein. He described patients who were passing too much water (polyuria). Like a siphon, the word became “diabetes” fromt eh English adoption of the Medieval Latin diabetes in 1675. Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means “honey”.

Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary Six Edition defines diabetes mellitus as any disorder of metabolism causing excessive thirst and the production of large volumes of urine.

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which the persons has high blood glucose. Either because insulin production is insufficient or because the body’s cell do not respond properly to insulin or both. By Christian Norguist in April, 2010, revised in July 2012 (Gobsle Com). Anyam A. Ordedoo 2000-2008) review diabetes mellitus as a metabolIc disorder due to relative deficiency of insulin in the body, lack of insulin whether absolute or relative affect the
metabolism of carbohydrate, the accumulation of sugar leads to it’s appearance in the blood and then in the urine.

Diabetes mellitus is a acute or chronic disease that affect many as 16 million American for reasons that are not yet clear, diabetes mellitus is increasing in our population to the point where public health authorities are calling diabetes an epidemic requires immediate attention of the 16 million peoples with diabetes about one third of them don’t know. Every year 8,000,000 additional cases are diagnosed.

Diabetes mellitus the most common endocrine disease occur when there is absence of insulin or, rarely impairment of insulin activity insulin resistance varymg degrees of disruption of carbohydrate and fat metalbolism occurs incidence of type one (1) and types (2) diabetes is increasing Worldwide. Ross Wilson (2010).

Diabetes mellitus affects over six percent of population now and it is projected that nearly nine percentage of American will have diabetes by the year 2016. Health cost for diabetes are estimated to be nearly S100 billion per year in the US diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United State(Alaribe H.A. 2009).

In the same way prevalence of diabetes mellitus among aged peopled, a case Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area Taraba State is no exceptional.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among aged and youth a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State is a challenge to all health provided especially the corn munity health who are in the grassroots and the government.

Diabetes mellitus in the lived aged occur in to two broad areas, types 1 and pes 21 diabetes accounts for about 5 to 10 percent of all diagnosed diabetes.

So it is less common than types 2. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that your imnune system the body system for fighting infection has gone haywire and it destroy the cell in your pancreas that produce insulin and in types 2 diabetes are called non-insulin dependent diabetes. Mellitus of adult onset diabetes. This type of 2 diabetes mellitus is different from type 1, diabetes in what the body make insulin efficiency.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common type of diabetes, accounting for 90 – 95 percent of all diabetes. It is usually developing after the age of 40 years. Types 2 diabetes is a progressive disease that can cause severe complication such as heart disease, kidney disease, loss of limb amputation and loss of vision (blindness) (Alaribe H.A, 2009).

In view of this researcher wants to dig out the underlying cause of diabetes mellitus among age people a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State.


1.3 Objective Of The Study

1.3.1 General Objective

To determine prevalence of diabetes mellitus among aged people a case of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area.

1.3.2 Specific Objective

Specifically it aimed at;

  1. To determine the main cause of diabetes mellitus among aged and other a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State.
  2. To identify the percentage of the aged people and other youth of 27 years at Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area Taraba State who suffer from chronic diabetes mellitus
  3. To find out whether the socio-econornic status of parents influence the level of food intake of aged and other youth people in the study area
  4. To find out how to prevent diabetes mellitus among aged and other youth of 27 year a case study of Yitti ward Lau LGA, Taraba State.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the main cause of diabetes melitus among aged people and other of 27 years and above a case study of Yitti ward Lau LGA Taraba State?
  2. What percentage of the aged people suffers from chronic diabetes mellitus?
  3. What are the preventive measure to prevalence of diabetes of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State?
  4. How does socio-economic status ofparent influence the level of food intake people and other youth in the study area?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The finding of this study will help the parents, the family, the individual health provide planners and government to understand the severity of diabetes mellitus among aged and other youth a case study of Yitti ward. Local Government Area, Taraba State with the view of planning curative, control and preventive measure.


1.6 Delimitation (Scope) Of The Study

The study is limied to prevalence of diabetes mellitus among a case study of Yitti ward Lau Local Government Area, Taraba State ofboth males and females. It does not involve children and adolescent.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Metabolish:

The sun of all the chemical and physical change that take place within the body and enable it continued growth and functioning (Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary)

Carbohydrate:

These are organic compound that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen generally with a ration of 2: 1 of hydrogen to oxygen, atoms (Gemson 2007).

Obesity:

Is a condition in which excess fat has accumulated in the body mostly in the subcutaneous tissue.

Diabetes Mellitus:

Is a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism in which sugar in the body are not oxidized to producer energy due to the lack of thr pancreatic hormones Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary (Sixth Edition, 2002).

Hypoglycaemia:

A deficiency of glucose in the blood stream, causing muscular weakness and in-coordination, mental confusion and sweating (Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary).

Hyperglycaemia:

An excess of glucose in the blood stream (Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary).

Glucose:

Is a simple sugar containing six carbon atoms.

Polyuria:

Is the production of large volumes of urine which is dilute and of a pale.

Pancreas:

Is a compound gland, about 15cm long, that lies behind the stomach, one end lies in the curve of the duodenum, ihe other end lies in the curve of the duodenum, the other end touches the spleen.

Insulin:

Is a protein hormone, produced in the pancreas by the beta cells of the islets of langerhans, that is important for regulating the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood.

Renal Failure:

This is due to diabetes nephropathy which affect the kidney and is a common cause of death in those with diabetes Ross & Wilson (11 Edition, 2010).

Islet:

Is a small group of cells that is structurally distinctj from the cells surrounding it.

Retinopathy:

Is any of various disorders of the retina resulting in impairment.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The case prevalence of diabetes among the youths of 27 years and above in the present study was 0.4 %. There was no significant differences between patients with different glycemic status in terms of ethnicity/nationality, gender or the two major age groups studied. Significantly more subjects were seen with hyperglycaemia from the rural areas compared to the urban areas. Impaired fasting glycaemia was seen in 14.5 % of study participants. A sizeable number of study subjects had diabetic parents with fathers being more affected than mothers. The literacy level of the parents in the study was low with mothers being affected than fathers.


5.2 Recommendation

Nationwide awareness campaigns about diabetes in childhood should be instituted and where already existent should be intensified so that the populace is educated appropriately regarding the signs of the disease and prevention strategies where applicable. With the IDF’s prediction of increase in incidence of diabetes in Nigeria by 2030, adequate commitment from the relevant stakeholders especially the country’s ministry of health is advocated to stem this looming epidemic.


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