Employee Relations Practice In The Aviation Industries In Nigeria
This research work is carried out on the Employee Relation precut in the Aviation industries in Nigeria taken FAAN, Enugu as their main stay. The research which was carried out in a systematic and sequential order is making up of five chapters. Chapter one, is the introduction of the study, two, is a level of the literature three, is the researcher Design and methodology out of while determination of sample size was done, four war the Analysis and interpretation of Data where tables, percentages, responses frequencies and standard deviations was used to elaborate the result and Decision taken at the end of each hypothesis test. While chapter five set forth to summarize the findings give a proper recommendations and at the same time draw a conclusion to he study. The questionnaire and oral interviews helped in getting almost some of the important information’s needed for the researcher work while at the end Bibliography was drawn which comprises all the present text not later than ten years of publication used in given meaning to the research topic to make the reader interested and bias free in the manuscript.
1.1 Background of the Study
The marketing environment of today has exposed scholars, individuals and the general publics about the understanding of human relations simply given a brand name to mean employee relations in our society. It is imperative to note that the marketers understanding of the consumer need in the market and the satisfaction of such need at the same time could be regarded as the employee relation practice in such market.
According to OBODO (2001), employees are allowed free hands to operate in any organization without any interference or arbitany use of authority. They usually give their best co-operate existence and understanding should be the management’s watch word. Nigeria as a developing country continues to grow in tandem with its air transport network following the construction of airports and planning of air routes. Most state capitals, big towns and cities are connected with aviation operations and services. Air transport in Nigeria has been growing in relation to the Gross National Product (GNP) as it accounts for a large part of transport expenditure in the economy (Oyesiku et al. 2013). It should be noted that the share of freight movement on a tonnekilometre is small compared to other modes; airlines carry high value, perishable, and provide emergency goods that make them an important part of the total transport system (Oyesiku and Oduwole, 2004). With the increasing passenger and cargo traffic, airports needs to expand and improve their operational capacity towards accommodating increasing workload, which invariably leads to increased operating and capital costs for airport operators. Some have suggested that with expansion, airports will benefit from economies of scale (less expenditure per unit of output) by enhancing efficiencies in operations and spreading out of the overhead costs; others, however, have suggested the opposite, arguing that increased in size will lead to increased operational and administrative complexities that will result in a loss of efficiencies (Oyesiku and Oduwole, 2004; Bubalo, 2009; 2011). An outcome of the deregulation of the aviation industry is privatization which brought in the application of private capital thus intensifying the need for performance monitoring and measurement, in addition to basic benchmarking exercises. While private capital may not be forthcoming to an airport authority if the level of uncertainty is too great, effective performance indicators help to reduce several of these uncertainties. While the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN) and its airports may provide good profit opportunities, it possesses considerable monopoly power.
The upward trend of air traffic growth further complicates the problem as the airports exploit the situation by charging high prices. This in turn renders profitability as an inaccurate measure of economic efficiency and creates the need for airports to be deregulated. Given that airports require large initial investments that require long gestation periods before profitable returns can be generated, cumbersome regulations discourage private capital. When airports are effectively regulated and subjected to good performance, more efficient terminals would justifiably earn higher profits or be able to attract further investments towards an efficient airport system. Increase capacity come in discrete lumps, such as when a new runway is constructed or the erection of an additional terminal building. It was emphasized that, it may be impossible to expand the capacity of a specific airport, thus, increase in capacity can only be achieved through investment in a different airport. Several studies have analyzed airports efficiency with different approaches (Data Envelopment Analysis, Stochastic Frontier analysis, Total Factor Production Analysis), focusing on different performance measures and on different efficiency drivers Barros and Dieke (2008) and Fung et al. (2008). An airport is rarely being used exactly to the extent it is designed for (OEF, 1999). For much of the time it will be underused, as when a new airport is built and traffic gradually builds up. Measured productivity, in terms of output per unit of inputs, will increase even though there is no improvement in efficiency.
Design and operational factors can have considerable impact on productivity of an airport. Usually, the configuration of runways reflects historical, land availability, environmental factors and also affect effective throughput. How an airport as a component of the air transport system impacts on the traffic pattern it faces, will in turn impact on its measured performance. Thus an airport that is a major hub within a busy air transport system will have a different traffic pattern than an airport that is at the end of the line. The peakness of traffic pattern affects the amount of traffic can be handled by an airport of a given capacity (Gourdin, 1991).It is posited thatairports do not provide the same mix of services and that the mix provided can differ sharply among airports. Some airports provide services directly, such as baggage handling or terminal services directly, while others subcontract services. Sometimes services are produced beyond the boundaries of the airport itself, by separate firms (e.g. flight catering). This poses the question of whether these services should be included or excluded in performance measurement. Some airports incorporate extensive retail activities; the question arises of whether these should be included when comparisons are made with airports that do not. There is a degree of substitutability between the production process of the airline and those of the airport. Increases in inputs at the airport level can lead to reductions in those needed by the airline. For instance, if an airport invests and expands a runway, airlines, on the other hand then schedule larger or more heavily laden aircrafts, with a consequent saving in per passenger costs. Such an investment may well be worthwhile in cost-benefit terms, but will lead to an increase in measured inputs of the airports, with no increase in measured output, and hence a decrease in productivity. Few studies have investigated the role of outsourcing strategy on airport performance (Oum et al.,2003; Oum and Yu, 2004). In the light of all these, the paper aims at examing airport productivity and efficiency performance in Nigerian airports with a view to holistically analyse the components of productivity in other to enhance revenue generation and service delivery. This employee relation refers to the way people behave or act toward each other in any situation in a business organization.
Taken a closely look at the definition of marketing given by the American institute of marketing when they defined marketing as a management process concerned with anticipating, identify and satisfaction of consumer need and want based on exchange function which gives profit to both the consumer and the organization through whom the satisfaction was derived. We will see that employee relations has two valuables that makes it possible:-
One of the factors in good employee relations is leadership which involves managers increasing productivity and profit by inspiring workers and ensuring adequate invectives for their effort and the establishment of understanding, goodwill between an organizations publics, policies and procedures of an individual ment to create public interest. UDEAGHA (1995).
According to NOUGHTON ETAL (1998) understanding man and his behaviour is an important aspect of employee relations in any organization. Most of the problems we have today is as a result of human differences and characters in an office in all, it is important to make workers knows why they are engaged in one task or the other and also create an enabling environmental condition for all and Sunday in order to carry every body along
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Employee Relation Practice in the Aviation Industry in Nigeria through the expected must effective channel of marketing a corporate services is the industry but because of the chocrimmaition of the senior staff and a feeling of being on top of the world has made it extremely difficult for some employees to coup with the demand of the day. In otherwards, the outstanding problems include;
Due to the fact that most employees are afraid of another taken up their position they tend to hid things from their subordinates to be novis in the time.
Relationships with the poor people are always neglected by the rich. In which case employees cannot effectively relate with either their rich customers and or their follow staff that are richer than others.
The problem of more presentation and stealing attitude in collaboration with entrusted spirit we have for fellow, friends in our different endeavours has made it absolutely impossible for an effective public relation to exist between two persons how in Nigeria.
The practice of public relations in some industries have become a very big problem in the sense that most of the follows in such industries are not in talking tense with one another. In the actual sense, where two or more persons have relations practice would have been defeated in such area.
It is said that effectiveness of every communication is feedback, In other wards, where there is no respect in an office, the practice of public of relations in such area will not yield a reasonable fruit of moving the organization forward.
1.2 Objectives of Study
The broad objectives of this research work is to evaluate on how employee relations practice in the Aviation industry can improve the marketing of the federal Airport Authority of Nigeria especially in Enugu State.
Therefore, the objectives of the research are:-
- To determine the effectiveness of public relations practice in the Aviation industry.
- To evaluate the level of satisfaction due to derived by the customers of the industry as a result of the practice.
- To identify the relations of their customers on the existence of effective public relations in the industry.
- To determine the impact of patronage to the industry as a result of the practice.
- To find out the marketing impact of public relations in the Aviation industry.
- And to investigate the performance of the industry as a result of the practice employed in the industry.
1.3 Formulation of Hypothesis
- Ho:- Customers of the federal Airports Authority of Nigeria are not satisfied with the public Relations practice existing in this industry.
- Hi:- Customers of the federal Airport Authority of Nigeria are satisfied with the public Relations Practice existing in the industry.
- Ho:- Effective Public Relations practice is not the best for customers of the FAAN.
- Hi:- Effective public Relations practice is the best for the customers of the FAAN.
- Ho:- The best method of attracting customers to the industry is not by adopting a sound public relations practice between employees.
- Hi:- The best method of attracting customers to the industry is by adopting a sound public Relations practice between employees.
- Ho:- Public Relations practice will not change the market position of the FAAN.
- Hi:- Public Relations practice will change the market position of the FAAN.
1.4 The Significance of the Study
The study to design to be beneficial to the following group of persons:-
The design of the study is in such that it will re-educate the federal Airport Authority of Nigeria on the basic of their public Relations practice to both their customers managers and subordinates. It will make them understand that any industry where there is no peace, achievement of stated objectives becomes a very big problem.
It is also meant to educate other individuals I other different industries in the country and in Enugu state in particular about the benefits of having a good public relationship n an office and the extent’ it will boom their marketing efficiency.
It will also act as a starting point for some students especially those in marketing department wishing to further this research study.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of this Study
The Scope of the study covers only Enugu state especially Emene in particular where we have our federal Airport Authority of Nigeria.
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
The finances at the disposal of the researcher was very limited as such could not finance a broader scope of the study
1.6 Definition of Terms
The languages used in the above chapter were all familiar ones and as a result, there is no term to be defined
Employee a person employed for wages or salary, especially at non-executive level
Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria is a service organization statutorily charged to manage all Commercial Airports in Nigeria and provide service to both passenger and cargo airlines.
Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain employee relations practice in the aviation industries in Nigeria.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of employee relations practice in aviation sector.
This study has attempted to present its own appreciation of the history and development of employee relations in Nigeria. It posits that the nature or structure of industrial relations in Nigeria today owe largely to its colonial history, having been ruled by Britain. The basis of industrial relation in Nigeria, as identified by this paper lies in the Anglo-Saxon Model, although it also drew inspirations from other systems of industrial relations, especially the Germanic (i.e co-determination system), Soviet, Australian and the American systems, all of which have created a hybrid of the Nigerian system of industrial relations. The study also highlighted the radical reforms of the military authorities and what now appears to be the permanent nature of interventionist policies of the Nigerian government in relation to industrial relations practice. Finally, the study examines the extant practice of industrial relations in Nigeria today and shows why it has failed as a result of governmental interference through highhanded policies and unpopular anti-labour law
This study has considered the issue of performance of the aviation workers with regards to their employee relations and contribution to the National GDP; compare the performance of aviation industry workers with those of the general labour force; ascertain the aviation industry’s contribution to the national GDP and did a forecast of the future throughput or demand in the aviation industry. Based on the aforementioned the following summary and finding could be made:
- The industry’s contribution to the GDP is very small.
- An average aviation worker contributes per head to the revenue of the industry than an average member of the labour force does to the national revenue or GDP.
- The number of employees engaged in the aviation industry is reducing but the industry is witnessing a boost in productivity of its workers.
- It was also discovered that (though not in the scope of this study) road transport industry contributes more than all the other modes of transport to the GDP.
The present results agreed with the study of Stephens (2009) that the industry will keep experiencing growth of throughput and increased contribution to GDP. Before now it has been a general belief that air transport contributes significantly to the GDP, however, this has been shown to be less than expected and even smaller than the contribution of the road transport industry.
It is recommended that Airports and airlines should share business strategies as the partnership is the key to the growth of both the airport and airline. The role government as the principal facilitator of infrastructure is to regulate the provision of air transport infrastructure with a view to ensuring the efficient operation of the aviation industry at the lowest social cost. Oni (2014) aptly noted that government as enabler andfacilitator must creates the right environment and incentives for stakeholders to contribute to development and ensures that resources needed for construction and maintenance of transport infrastructures are available at the lowest possible cost or price through a more pluralistic and inclusive approach to transportation planning, in which all stakeholders functions as partner Aeronautical revenue can be maximized by marketing on behalf of or in conjunction with an airline to grow passenger numbers through the airport. Joint marketing plans and co-operative marketing can add value to the partnership with the airline by helping them sell seats and provide airlines with the confidence of working more closely with the airport. Giving the airport a more strategic role in the airline’s development for the airport and leading to more effective future passenger forecasting. Innovative strategies in communication and marketing approaches will help share the future recognition of airports as market leaders of creative thinking. Embracing change yet solidifying approaches to marketing that will be effective for the target market. Airports can learn from other industries and be prepared with aggressive strategies for the longer term growth, post the short term instability of the economic environment
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