The Employee Training And Productivity In The Aviation Industry

Project and Seminar Material for Industrial Relations and Personnel Management

The Employee Training And Productivity In The Aviation Industry


Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

The importance of training and manpower development for the successful operation and maintenance of civil aviation system is a fast paced, competitive industry cannot be over-emphasized.

Training has an important role to play in achieving the aim and objectives of any organization. It brings about changes in knowledge, skills and attitude. It ensures that skilled managers are available to plan effectively this delivery of high quality service.

Organizations that neither train nor develop their staff are likely to face the problems of loss of competitiveness as well as the danger of extinction in this millennium. The dynamism and changes in the environments in which organizations operate today have become irrelevant discontinuous, spasmodic nature and sheer growth of knowledge especially in information technology make the continuous upgrading of the critical skills and capabilities of employees a major imperative for human resources management.

Training is concerned with the acquisition of a body of knowledge and skills which can be applied to reading, writing and aptitude verbal and quantitative. Patrick (2000).

The importance of training is a means of productivity cannot be over stressed due to rapid changes in technology the pattern of training has been concerned as a continuous exercise throughout one’s working life. It is necessary that from time to time, training needs of a job or group of jobs be identified so as to determine the best way such needs can be met.

Simbo (2002) define training as “an organized procedure by which people learn knowledge or skills for a definite purpose”. It is a process for equipping the employees with specific skills e.g. technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing artistic skills, clerical performances and overall efficiency. Training refers to the organized activity aimed at imparting information or instructions to improve the recipients performance or to help him attain a repaired level of knowledge or skill. Training is developed as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job performance is improved by helping the learners to master a new or established technology. The technology may be a piece of heavy machinery, computer a procedure for creating a product. Training according to Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary is the process of preparing somebody or being prepared for a job. Training is the action of teaching a personal skill.

Training defined by Merriam Webster Dictionary is the act, process or method of one that trains. Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge skills and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational on practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeship and provide the backbone of contents at institutes of technology also known as technical colleges or polytechnics. In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labour market who recognized as of 2008 the need is continue training beyond initial qualifications to maintain, upgrade land update skills throughout.

Purpose of training: The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long-term profitability of a small business. If you line and keep good employees, it is a good policy to invest in the development of their skills, so they can increase their productivity. Training for most organization is considered for new employees help them adjust to rapidly changing jobs requirements. Purpose of training which helps to emphasize the growth and development of personnel include creating a pool of reading materials and making available adequate replacements for personnel who learn or move up in the organizations enhancing the company’s ability to adapt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledge staff. Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team which enhances the company’s competitive position and improves employee morals.

Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programmes is another purpose of training. Research has shown specific benefit that a small business receives from training and developing its workers. These include increased productivity educated employee turnover, increased efficiency resulting in financial gains and increased need for supervision sense of self worth, dignity and well being as they become more valuable to the firm and society. Generally, they will receive greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through achievements of personnel and company goals.

Impact of technology in training: Impact of technology in training to grasp the impact that technology is creating in training society most consider how technology has revolutionized the aviation industry in barely five years, electronic technology has dramatically penetrate into the aviation industry. The entire society can reflected on how some aspect of the new information age is changing their job in the air industry. As the nation enters into the new millennium the most fundamental shift will reflect redefinition of training itself.

To maintain a key talent, remain competitive and ensure long-term profitability organizations are making dramatic changes in the way. They develop the knowledge and skills of their workforce. Training as something provided for employees will be replaced by learning that employees initiate themselves. New skills and knowledge are required in training. There is greater efficiency and greater productivity in training; we live in a competitive economy where new services required. In Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria that training is becoming ultimate FAAN is not committed. Training and retraining is viral in order to give maximum comfort to air commuters.

Types of courses and benefits of Training: There are variety of courses for the workers of the aviation industry some courses take place in Nigeria while others take place oversees.

  1. Women in Aviation training (USA)
  2. AC side training (FAAN)
  3. Revalidation training
  4. Pilot training (NCAT)

The benefits are

  1. Training keep employees motivated
  2. Training prevent boredom with new skills and knowledge
  3. It demonstrates to the employee that they are valuable enough for the employer to invest in their development.
  4. Training creates positive attitudes through clarifying the behaviours and attitudes that are expected from the employee.
  5. Training some organization money, if it helps the employee to become efficient.

The above stated, perhaps explains why the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN) recognized that it has to build rapidly the human capacity of managing it operations effectively and efficiency.

Consequently, manpower development through training was accorded high priority when the training department of the authority was established as a separate entity from the personnel department as early is 1979 about a year after the take off of the authority. Though training has been on, it had not been without problems (Odugbem 2002).

Factors that Influences Training: When a business chooses to train their workers, there are many factors that affect the training process. Top management needs to have a “buy-in” and commitment to the training and development. Training needs to be part of the corporate culture. If employees feel they are not supported by their management while training, they may not give the attention and commitment that the training deserves. Training needs to be tied to business strategy and objectives and needs to be tied to business strategy and objectives and needs to be linked to bottom line results.

Workers want their organization to do well. Employees that contribute to the bottom line especially are less likely off during tough times. Organizational environments are “feed back” they stress continuous improvement promote risk taking and afford opportunities to learn from success and failures of decisions. Without this freedom of allowing changes to the status quo workers are not able to use the training that they have acquired. Training is more than classroom time and it can be influenced by (a) intrinsic motivator (b) extrinsic motivator.

Purkey and Stanley (1991) described intrinsic motivation as a motivation to engage in activities that enhance or maintain a person’s self concept. Fredrick (1923-2000) posits that some factors relate to one’s job satisfaction: that certain factors lead to job satisfaction while others lead to dissatisfaction. These factors that include work itself, responsibility and advancement. This factors give rise to satisfaction motivator i.e with its intrinsic challenge it concentrated on satisfaction at work intrinsic is what one enjoy doing.

Extrinsic Motivation: An extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward. The reward can be something as minor as smiley face to something major like frame or future.

Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) posits that the average person dislike work and will avoid it. the average person prefers to be directed tries to avoid responsibility and wants security. Most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisatonal objectives. The Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria (FAAN) is a transport industry founded in 1935 with its headquarters at the Muritala Mohammed International Airport Ikeja, Lagos State is a service organization statutorily changes to manage all commercial airports in Nigeria and provide service to both passengers and airlines. FAAN is a parastatal of government which is under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Aviation. Her vision and mission are: to be amongst the best airport groups in the world and to develop profitably manage customer centric airports facilities for safe secure and efficient carriage of passengers and goods of world class standards.


Purpose of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to establish whether effective employee training can enhance productivity, specifically the study will try it.

  1. Ascertain the importance which the management of FAAN attaches to training and development as a means of improving knowledge, skills and behaviour of its staff.
  2. Find out whether such training programmes actually assisted staff productivity.
  3. Find out whether courses undertaken are geared towards improving service delivery by FAAN manpower.

Research Questions

  1. What kind of training and development programmes is available to employee in FAAN?
  2. How effective are the training programme from both the employee and management perspective?
  3. What is the relationship between training availability, training relevant and productivity in FAAN?
  4. What extent have proper and effective training programmes minimize aviation problems?
  5. Is it inadequacy of training that is responsible for employee poor performance in FAAN?

Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis 1

Effective training of employees cannot lead to increased performance and productivity.

Hypothesis 2

Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria does not provide adequate training and development for its staff

Hypothesis 3

Proper and effective training programme cannot minimize productivity problems.


Scope of the study

The research was carried out at the headquarters of Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN) in Lagos Muritala Mohammed International Airport Lagos. The researcher also will administer middle staff, supervisors and clerical officers. Finally, the research will also be extended to Human Resource and FAAN Training Department to collect relevant information.


Justification of the study

This study is very significantly in that it will throw more light on how effective employee training can be used to increase the productivity level in the organization.


Limitation of the study

The findings of this study will have limited application in view of the fact that the research is not going to cover all the airports and other formations of FAAN. Since one major source of information is questionnaire, the resources may be blow out of proportion and may affect the reliability of such information.


Statement of the problem

Training is an essential ingredient in the productivity of an organization and when it concerns the aviation industry that is geared towards the safety of human lives and goods. The importance of training cannot be overemphasized provision of quality services to customers is paramount therefore training and retraining of employees need to be a subject of great concern to researchers and the generality of the populace.

It is against this that this research work is set to investigate if proper and adequate training programem are undertaken to make employees to be on top of providing quality service to the people.

The responsibilities of FAAN are:

  1. Development and maintenance of airports with the Nigeria territory.
  2. Provide safe environment under which passenger and goods would be carried by air.
  3. Provide accommodation and other facilities for effective handling of passengers and freight.
  4. Development and provision of facilities for surface transport at Airports.

An organization saddled with the above responsibilities cannot but train her employees to provide efficient and effective services to customers. The authority established a training centre for the training development of her staff nationwide. It is therefore not out of place to look at the training programme offered to employees to improve their skills, knowledge, behaviour in order to increase their productivity.


Operational definition of Term

Employee:

Employee is a person who is hired to provide services to a company on a regular basis in exchange for compensation and who does not provide these services as part of an independent business. An employee is a person working for another person or a business firm for pay.

  1. An employee is a person employed for wages or salary especially at non executive level.
  2. An employee is a person who laws hired by an employer to do a specific job.
Training:

Training is an acquisition of knowledge, skill and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capability and performance. it forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology.

In addition to the basic training require for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labour market who recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications to maintain upgrade and update skills throughout working life people within many professions and occupation may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Training is also the action of teaching a person or animal a particular skill or type of behaviour. Training is an educational process.

Productivity:

Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production. Productivity is a ratio of production output to what is required to produce it (input) the measure of productivity is defined as a total output per one unit of total output. Productivity is the state of quality of producing something.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

This chapter contains the summary of the research work, its conclusion and recommendations.


5.1 Summary

The general aim of the study was to evaluate training and development programme in Nigerian public organisations. The study was guided by four research questions and four objectives. Chapter one provided background to the study by painting vivid picture of the indispensability of the equipped human element the attainment of organisational goals. A statement of the problem that necessitated the execution of this research work was equally clearly given in chapter one among other sub-topics in chapter one. The study declared that there has been a common observation that the issue of staff training and development is often treated with levity and neglect.

Chapter two of the research work gave a critical review of relevant and related literature. Here, the twin-concepts of training and development were given scholarly definitions and the distinctions between training and development as recognized by some scholars were given. The importance of proper identification of training need was underscored, and selected theoretical models for training and development were suggested. The study adopted contingency approach as its theoretical framework. The approach was chosen to reiterate that ‘no one best’ or universal model for training and development programme and training evaluation for all organisation.

Chapter three was a discourse of the methodology employed to collect data for the research work. Survey method was adopted for this work. While Yamane’s formula was used to arrive at the sample size, T-test distribution was used to analyse data collected using SAS.

In chapter four, presentation and interpretation of the data collected were done using tables and simple percentage. The hypotheses formulated for this work were also tested and objective inferences made.


5.2 Conclusion

Training and development is an initiative adopted by organisations to bridge the gap between current job performance of employees and their expected or required job performance. For training and development to be effective and efficient, organisations need to consider the pros and cons of the various training models and adopt the most suitable for any training need at any given time. Equally important is the evaluation technique to be employed to assess the contribution of any training initiative at a given time. The evaluation method should be made an integral part of the entire training process. It is worthy of note that evaluation will not ensure effective learning unless training is properly designed. Effective training evaluation strategies are needed to measure changes in employees’ behaviour, attitude, knowledge and skill that are induced by a training programme. Training evaluation strategies are equally required to ascertain changes or improvement in organisational efficiency and effectiveness. Training evaluation is also necessary to rectify performance deficiency of employees. The impact of training and development on an organisation and its employees is enormous. Training and development hasten the fulfilment of organisational goals as well as fulfilment of the career advancement need of employees. It strengthens the bonds between employers and employees because of the mutual benefits both derive from a well organised training policy of organisations.


5.3 Major Findings and Recommendations

  1. Training and development obviously is beneficial to employees and employers alike especially when the training and development programme is coordinated and planned by employer and not done haphazardly by employees. It was observed that a wellplanned training programme by an organisation ensures that the organisation has a consistent supply of competent and qualified labour force that is able to meet both immediate and future need of personnel to effectively man the affairs of the organisation. The organisation also benefits from training and manpower development in terms of less staff absenteeism, less frequent labour turnover, reduction of industrial accident to the barest minimum, among other benefits engineered by staff training. On the other hand, training and development also has positive effective on employees as trained employees tend to give their cooperation heartily towards the attainment of the corporate goal. It was also observed that training guarantees better performance from trained staff.
  2. The research made the discovery that though training enhances the job performance of employees, performance evaluation of trained employees does not enhance or guarantee training transfer. In other words, it is not the evaluation or assessment of the job performance of trained employees that makes or motivates trained employees to apply what they (employees) have learnt at workplace. Use of training evaluation techniques like observation, interview, pre-training test and post-training test do not in themselves encourage or compel employees to give more or perform more after a training programme. So, other conditions and requirements such as good working conditions, motivations, etc. are to complement training programme to make training effective and enhance training transfer.
  3. Though most respondents were of the opinion that it was deficiency in job performance that qualified them for training and development programme, it was observed that most employees are recommended for training and development programme by their superior as against being shortlisted for training and development programme based on observed deficiency in employee’s job performance.
  4. Training evaluation is virtually as important as the training programme as it ensures that training programmes embarked upon by employees are relevant to the organisation and enhances the speedy attainment of the overall objective of the organisation. Training and development evaluation does not only complete the training process, it guarantees that a valid assessment of the entire training process is made for effective future decision-making by management.

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