Risk Management; Means Of Minimizing Accident In The Aviation Industry In Nigeria
Our risk exposures are influenced by our economy, lifestyles, psychical well being, occupation, environment etc., there variables are dynamic therefore risk managers and analyst must be dynamic in their choice of tools to manage risk exposures. In their choice of tools to manage risk exposures, in this project all the knowledge that might be useful to risk managers, however have been presented in the most important process and readable way.
1.1 Background of the Study
The ever increasing growth in air transport implies increasing demand for air transport services, which further propagates into need for providing more efficient, effective and safe runway operations. Landing and take-off are critical phases of flight operations and runway is an area where landing and departing aircraft may have the opportunities to interact with other taxiing aircraft, ground vehicles, personnel, animals and foreign objects. Given the speed of aircraft and its limited ability in exercising avoiding actions on the runway especially during take-off and landing roll, the potential hazard as may be created by runway accidents have become a deep concern to aviation safety in many countries. The worst aircraft accident in aviation history happened in 1977 and it was a runway collision involving two Boeing 747 aircraft in Tenerife, the Canary Islands, resulting in the loss of 583 persons. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has specified Standards and Recommended Practices (SA R Ps) relating to airport system operation and the development of operational procedures for the purpose of achieving runway safety. Despite all these efforts, absolute aviation safety for humans and property is still a mirage and unsafe events still persist. Aviation accident and prevention have been challenging within the air transportation industry for years and undoubtedly will continue to be a major concern for not only aviation professionals but for all those directly or indirectly affected by air transportation. Accordingly, although safety conditions are exceptionally good in air transport, as compared with rail, road and water transport, safety management is a fundamental factor for the sustainability of this service (Pacheco et al., 2014). Runway accidents are majorly runway incursions and runway excursions. A runway incursion is any unauthorized intrusion onto a runway, regardless of whether or not an aircraft presents a potential conflict (US Federal Administration Authority, 2008b). Runway incursions have sometimes led to serious accidents with significant loss of life. Although runway incursion is not a new problem, with increasing air traffic, runway incursions have been on the rise. According to the US internal FAA documents, as of September 4, 2008, there were 921 runway incursions in Fiscal Year, FY2008, 106 more than during the same period in FY2007. Runway incursions have also exceeded the limit placed by Federal Administration Authority (FAA) performance standards, which allows not more than 769 runway incursions during the entire fiscal year (US Federal Administration Authority, 2008b). Of all the runway incursions that occurred in FY 2007, 57 percent were caused by pilots, 28 percent by controllers and 15 percent by ground vehicles. At the end of FY2008, 1009 runway incursion was recorded; the highest in last couple of years 779 in FY 2005, 816 in FY 2006 and 892 in FY 2007. In FY 2009, the number of runway incursion decreased by 13 percent to 951. It should be noted that there were 52, 928, 316 surface operations in 2009 as against 58, 560, 343 surface operations in 2008. The decrease in runway incursions should be expected due to decreased in surface operations in 2009. In FY2012, 583 towered airports reported a total of 1, 150 runway incursion, which is an increase from 954 runway incursion in FY 2011 and 966 runway incursions in FY 2010 (US Federal Administration Authority, 2012). Aviation safety programme has a common goal – to reduce hazards and manage residual risk in air transportation. Runway operations are an integral part of aviation; the hazards and risks associated with runway operations need to be managed in order to prevent runway incursions that may lead to accidents. According to the Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursions (International Civil Aviation Organization, 2007), a number of factors is likely to be responsible for the continuing increase in runway incursions, including traffic volume, capacity-enhancing procedures, aerodrome design and increasing environmental pressures. These factors, combined with inadequate training, poor infrastructure and system design, and inadequate ATC facilities, can lead to an increased risk of runway incursionsespite the fact that air travel is the latest method of transport, it represents one of the most important sectors of the economy. The huge expansion of aviation is dated from the early 20th century, and its volume is still growing. The use of aviation throughout the world lags far behind the USA, where this method of transport is annually used by 60% population, while in Eastern Europe it is only 0,4% and in China 0,05% of the population. However, these figures are also highlighting the enormous potential for growth in this sector, whether in Europe or in Asia. Growth potential of the aviation market and flexibility of conditions have resulted in increased competition that forces airlines to expand or reduce its prices. (Harding, Maddocks, Moss, &Pryde, 2002) Air transport is the safest method of transport. Qualitative and quantitative criteria of each method of transport vary in speed, comfort, economical aspect and especially in safety. Air transport maintains leading position according to these criteria.Aviation maintenance personnel face a particular risk of fatigue due to night shift work, the potential for long and unregulated duty times, and the sleep disruption that can result from these working conditions (Hackworth, Holcomb, Banks, Schroeder, & Johnson, 2007; Johnson, Mason, Hall, & Watson, 2001; Johnson, 2008). Fatigue management in aviation maintenance has received increasing attention from international bodies, national aviation authorities, investigation agencies, airlines, and maintenance and repair organizations (MROs). The purpose of this discussion paper is to summarize the current state of fatigue risk management in aviation maintenance and to examine emerging approaches to the management of maintainer fatigue.This report presents best practices for maintenance fatigue risk management, drawn from published sources and the experience of industry personnel. The information on industry practices was obtained from 50 individuals in aviation authorities, airlines, maintenance organizations, and the internal company documents they kindly providedAll the above requirements are necessary to ensure safety of flights in our airspace. The fact that air transport generally carries influential and important people across the world makes it mandatory to take all necessary measures that will ensure security and safety of lives and properties. In developing countries such as Nigeria, it is only the rich and high class people that can afford the cost of air transport, and as such any air disaster will attract more attention and calls for higher safety standards. Traditionally, air traffic services across the globe have been provided by governments, on a national and sovereign basis so as to oversee and continuously monitor the development Some air navigations services can trace their, origins back to the earliest days of civil flying; others have evolved from strictly military roots. However, due to increasing demand for funding, air navigation service providers are 10 increasing being asked to adopt business practices as means of funding crucial investment in aviation infrastructure, since they are being assigned to authorities with administrative and often with administrative and often with financial autonomy . Such is the change that air traffic service providers now even have an official body representing their interests at international forums, where for many years they have simply being considered as part of the government process and represented by their individual government, if at all. Several factors have stimulated the swing to commercialization. For example, as the population of economically mature states ages, government finances are becoming increasingly stretched. Growing demands on treasury resources to finance service and program for which states have traditionally been responsible – such as health. Welfare and social security – mean that services such as air traffic control, find themselves in an unequal competition for scarce public funds. But if sole responsibility for funding air navigation systems rests in the hands of national governments, political expediency or public sector borrowing limits can affect the funding available to the creation of a safe, efficiency and evolving infrastructure. In essence, the provision of flight plan for navigation safety must continue to be done without limitation for reliability and efficiency either by the government or private agency.Commercial air travel is one of the safest modes of transport available today due to the prompt attention given to accidents and the remedies put in place to prevent their reoccurrence. Air travel is well thought-out to be safe (Harrera and Vasigh, 2009), because major accidents along with several less severe accidents and incidents happen globally every year, the system is considered to be imperfect. Since aircraft are mostly involved in these occurrences, there are many opportunities for investigators to identify faults and causes that, if not remedied or eliminated, could manifest again and lead to their reoccurrence. Proper interpretation of accidents and/or incidents by investigators must be ensured in order to eliminate these faults. Hence, this will enable the investigators to develop recommendations that are comprehensive enough to cover the various ways in which faults could be triggered and disseminate those lessons so that appropriate remedies may be implemented. Transportation technologies have largely contributed in globalization recently. This implies that air transportation over the years promoted global trade, foreign investment flows, employment generation, airlines companies revenue generation, revenue for government and movement of people. However, these positive externalities of the aviation industry are also associated with negative externalities such as environmental, social and economic losses. According to Wiegmann & Shappell (2003), air transportation is sadly associated with accidents which lead to tragic losses such as passengers’ death, airlines’ revenue loss (passengers’ compensation and low passengers traffic in the events of aircraft accidents).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the past, any flight included a very high risk. Detailed investigations of accidents – mainly executed in the U.S. after World War II – made it possible to selectively identify the most important causes of accidents. Especially when the financial resources for risk minimization are limited, optimal use of the limited resources is paramount. The return on investment is highest, when investments are made in exactly those fields where the highest risk is encountered. Reacting in this sense to the main risk areas resulted in an increase in flight safety to approx. 1.2 million flight hours per total loss. It is in view of the above that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of risk management as a means of minimizing accident in the aviation industry in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to ascertain the efficacy of risk management as a means of minimizing accidents in the aviation industry in Nigeria.
But to aid the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objective;
- To ascertain the impact of risk management in curtailing the accident rate in the aviation sector
- To examine the role of management in minimizing aviation accident in Nigeria aviation sector
- To examine if there is any relationship between risk management prowess and accident rate in the aviation sector
- To examine the effect of risk management on the growth of Nigeria aviation industry
1.4 Research Hypotheses
To aid the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher:
- H0: risk management does not have any effect on the growth of Nigeria aviation industry
H1: risk management does have an effect on the growth of Nigeria aviation industry
- H0: there is no significant relationship between risk management prowess and accident rate in the aviation sector
H2: there is a significant relationship between risk management prowess and accident rate in the aviation sector
1.5 Significance of the Study
The problems of Nigeria aviation industry are many and varied. These problems have given rise to the emergence of air crashes that will witness today. The situation has also exposed the air transport industry to stagnation and underdevelopment. It is believed that the study will be able to address some of these problems in the sector
Furthermore, the socio-political situation in the country which makes the Nigeria aviation to be under the control of Federal Government, with exception of airline, does not help matter. The appointments at the top management level are made by the government. These appointments/positions are seeing by many as national cake and means of getting one’s share. Invariably, no matter the allocation of fund to this sector by the government, the impact will not be felt. Which is why this study is embark on to address these lapses
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers risk management as a means of minimizing accidents in the aviation industry in Nigeria, but in the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
This is a journey made by air especially in an air craft or plane. Planning: This is a make detailed arrangements for something you want do e.g. travelling in the future.
This can be refer to as any machine that can drive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air against the earth‟s surface.
It is way for travelling from one place to another.
This is the movement of passengers and goods from one location to another.
The act of passenger and crew entering in air craft.
It is the area located above ground level, which in air craft traveled through.
An airfield with control tower and hanger as well as accommodation for passenger and cargo.
Aviation: Aviation, or air transport, refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value. Values (such as physical health, social status, emotional well-being, or financial wealth) can be gained or lost when taking risk resulting from a given action or inaction, foreseen or unforeseen
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine risk management as a means of minimizing accidents in the aviation industry in Nigeria.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of risk management in the aviation sector.
The roles that air transport played significantly impacted positively on Nigeria economic development (Akpoghomeh, 1999; Adeniyi&Cmilt, 2011). This consists of entrepreneurial efficiency and innovations leading to revenue enrichment and increased productivity with rapid market growth through globalization, multinational institutions, cultural and political integration. According to Ogunkoya (2008), aviation services have facilitated competition in tourism and associated industries in Nigeria recently. Air travel in Nigeria is an important transportation mode because it provides an efficient way to link many cities spread across the six geo-political zones in the country. As shown in Table 5.25, air passenger growth in Nigeria experienced a deterred behaviour. The number of air passengers grew through the early 1990s, declined rapidly between 1995 and 2000, grew at average rates between 2001 and 2005, dropped sharply between 2006 and 2007 and then increased rapidly above average between 2008 and 2010.
Aviation safety concerns had a major influence on the development of Nigeria’s civil aviation. the number of aviation fatalities peaked (157) in 1996. In 1997, Nigeria had only 7 aviation fatalities following series of accidents, which included two crashes in 2000 and 2003 that claimed 162 and 111 lives respectively. These accidents exacerbated the effects of the financial crisis and resulted in the suppression of air passenger demand starting in 1997. This decrease in demand is reflected in the decrease of international air passenger arrivals in 1997 and 1998.
The improvement of Nigeria’s aviation safety oversight has shown that only marginal improvements have been made since 1990s. For example, following a string of two crashes that killed at least 305 people between 2005 and 2006, the Nigeria authorities attempted to regulate the nation’s deficient airlines. Government grounded some 93 airlines and demanded inspections of their aircraft after the airlines were involved in accidents. However, despite these improvement efforts, Nigeria still had 3.77 fatal accidents for every 1 million take offs in three years that ended March 31, 2007 while the global average was 0.25 (IATA, 2008). Even though air passenger growth was suppressed due to aviation safety concerns, the overall growth of the airline industry aided in the development of Nigeria’s transport and tourism industry. However, the growth has been stagnant since 2003 partly due to the suppressed leisure passenger demand following the aviation fatalities. In addition to aviation safety concerns, international visitors were deterred by the poor safety conditions of other transportation modes and other security issues arising in the country.
Haven completed the study, the following recommendations are necessary to enhance safety in air transportation industry.
- Computerized flight planning system, that is still at infant stage in Nigeria should be fully embraced to promote air transport safety.
- In addition, on congested routes flight plan must produce summarize showing how much fuel would be needed if the aircraft is little lighter or heavier or if it is flying higher or lower than planned. These summarize allow flight “dispatchers and pilots to check if there is enough reserve fuel to cope with a different scenario.
- Also, while enroot, an aircraft may be diverted to some airport other than the planned alternate, A flight planning system can be produce a new light plan for the new route from the diversion point and transmit it to the aircraft, including a check that there will be enough fuel for the revised flight. This would be enhanced by computerized system.
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